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Transcription and Translation

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Presentation on theme: "Transcription and Translation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transcription and Translation

2 Structure of RNA Similar to DNA 3 main differences
5 carbon sugar Phosphate group Nitrogenous base 3 main differences Ribose sugar rather than deoxyribose Single stranded rather than double stranded Bases are Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine Disposable copy of DNA

3 Types of RNA mRNA tRNA rRNA The message of DNA to code for a gene
Used to bring amino acids together when creating proteins rRNA Forms ribosomes, along with proteins


5 Transcription Production of RNA from DNA Requires RNA polymerase
Function? Started by helicase proteins Promoters Regions of DNA that allows RNA polymerase to bind to it Signal points for the beginning of a gene


7 After Transcription RNA produced requires editing before it is an active form Introns: sequences of DNA found in eukaryotic genes Must be removed from RNA before it can be used to produce proteins Exons: segments of DNA that code for proteins Stay in DNA Both introns and exons are formed from DNA


9 Genetic Code Amino acids are joined together in long chains to form proteins (polypeptides) Each combination of amino acids means the proteins have different properties Codon Three nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid mRNA is read 3 bases at a time, each 3 bases is one codon UCGCACGGU  UCG-CAC-GGU  Serine – Histidine – Glycine



12 Translation Turning mRNA into a protein Requires ribosomes
Occurs in 3 steps mRNA in cytoplasm attaches to a ribosome. mRNA moves through the ribosome, each codon is read and a tRNA brings the matching amino acid and attaches them together. Peptide bond is formed between amino acids to hold protein together. At the same time, ribosome breaks the bond holding the amino acid to the tRNA then releases the tRNA. Continues to grow until the ribosome reads a stop codon


14 Genes and Proteins Proteins control every physical characteristic
Genes control production of enzymes to produce skin pigment Genes also control enzyme production that determines blood type

15 Activity Write a one paragraph summary of the lecture notes.

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