2 DNA → RNA → Protein Genes are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteinswithin the cell…DNA → RNA → Protein
3 …by copying the nucleotide sequence of DNA into RNA: ribonucleic acid! …just how are thoseinstructions decoded???Step 1:…by copying the nucleotidesequence of DNA intoRNA: ribonucleic acid!
4 Like DNA, RNA is a longchain made up of nucleotides.There are 3 main differences:- the sugar in RNA is ribose(not deoxyribose);- RNA is mostly single-stranded;- RNA contains uracil instead ofthymine.
6 Messenger RNACarries copies of gene instructions (to synthesize proteins out of amino acids) from DNA to the rest of the cell.
7 Ribosomal RNA Proteins are assembled on ribosomes, which are made up of manyproteins as well as ribosomal RNA.
8 Transfer RNATransfer RNA delivers each amino acid coded for by messenger RNA to the ribosome for proteinassembly.
9 Transcription …part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.
10 • RNA polymerase opens up DNA and separates the strands. • RNA polymerase uses one DNA strand as a template to produce astrand of RNA.• RNA polymerase binds only to promoters, special DNA regions withspecific base sequences…tell where to start and stop transcription.
11 Introns & Exons: RNA Editing Introns are intervening sequences of nucleotides (non-coding segments of DNA) that are cut out from the mRNA before it travels out to the ribosomes.Exons are expressed sequences of nucleotides (they will be synthesized into proteins) that get spliced together as mRNA.
12 Can YOU transcribe? RNA strand: A U U G A C U G A A C U G A DNA strand: T A A C T G A C T T G A C TREMEMBER: in transcription, uracil replaces thymine in RNA!
13 Translation: Breaking the genetic code The process of decoding mRNA nucleotides into proteinsProteins are made by joining amino acids into long chains called polypeptides.The order of these amino acids determines which protein is made.The sequence of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of amino acids, thus dictating the protein.
14 The genetic code is written in a language that only has four letters: A,U,G &C! These letters (nucleotides) combine in different ways to form the code for 20 different amino acids.The genetic code is read 3 letters (nucleotides) at a time in groups called codons.
15 64 possible codons (4 bases3) One codon, AUG, canspecify methionine or“start” codon forprotein synthesis.Note the three“stop” codons thatdo note code for anyamino acid – they signalthe end of a polypeptidechain.…some amino acidscan be coded forby more than onecodon……can yougive an example?
16 Consider the following mRNA sequence: U C G C A C G G UThis sequence would be read three bases at a time as:U C G - C A C - G G UThe codons represent different amino acids:U C G - C A C - G G U(Serine - Histidine – Glycine)
17 Translation mRNA leaves the nucleus, attaches to ribosome… …in the ribosome, the amino acid is transferred to the growing polypeptide chain.…starting at AUG, mRNA’s codon attracts tRNA ‘s anticodon with its amino acid…