2Appositives & Appositive Phrases The word appose means “to place near or next to.”Appositives are placed next to the nouns or pronouns to which they relateUsually follows the word it identifies, renames, or explains
3Appositives & Appositive Phrases Examples:Raymond wrote his history report on the sixteenth president, Abraham LincolnLincoln’s home state, Illinois, is the site of both his first law office and his tomb.
4Appositive Phrases An appositive usually includes modifiers When it does, it is called an appositive phrase
5Appositive Phrases Examples: During Lincoln’s presidency, the Civil War, a long and costly war, beganand ended.
6Appositive Phrases Examples: Lincoln wrote the Gettysburg Address, one of history’s most memorablespeeches.
7Appositive Phrases Examples: The war, the bloodiest in U.S. history, (sometimes includes a prep. Phrase)accomplished Lincoln’s goal of preservingthe union.
8Appositive PhrasesAppositives and appositive phrases can be compoundedExample:At Appomattox Court House, the two opposinggenerals, Lee and Grant, signed the documents thatended the Civil War.
9Appositive Phrases Punctuation If an appositive contains essential information to the meaning of a sentence, no punctuation is neededInformation is considered essential if it identifies a person, place, or thingEssential: My brother Bill organized a surprise party for my older brother, Tom.
10Appositive Phrases Punctuation If an appositive contains nonessential information to the meaning of a sentence, commas should be used to separate it from the rest of the sentenceInformation is considered nonessential if it can be removed without changing the basic meaning of a sentenceNonessential: John Wilkes Booth, the stage actor, assassinated Lincoln.(Commas are used because the appositive phrase could be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.)