Presentation on theme: "Waste Energy Solutions Co-digestion for Energy and Environment Jane Maxwell, Project Consultant www.fromwastetoenergy.com."— Presentation transcript:
Waste Energy Solutions Co-digestion for Energy and Environment Jane Maxwell, Project Consultant
What can Danish biogas technology do? Handle waste Reduce odour Increase nutrient accessibility Reduce nutrient leaching Provide Carbon neutral energy Provide added revenue Enrich the community Reduce GHG emissions
The technology: Anaerobic digestion Mesophilic and Thermophilic process Fully mixed digester Co-digestion concept Proven in Denmark We have made all the mistakes and learned
What is Biogas?
CH 4 production capacity
Biogas Plant design
Biogas technology Pre-treatment –Mixing –Macerating –Hygienisation/ sterilisation –+/- other pre-treatment: e.g. concentration Digestion Aftertreatmnet –Store –Separate –Upgrade End use –Land application –Move and apply –Transport market / or disposal
Anaerobic Digestion of Wastes Bacteria digest organic compounds in oxygen free environments and produce Anaerobic digestion is a naturally occurring process that involves complex biochemical processes carried out by a consortium of bacteria. Biogas
Biogas is Up to 65% methane 35% to 40% Carbon Dioxide Trace amounts of H 2, NH 3, and H 2 S. Used as fuel in internal combustion engine to produce electricity Used in boilers Or Stripped of CO 2 and contaminants and injected into pipeline LNG – Liquefied Natural GasCNG - Compressed Natural Gas
23 Dairies in the middle Suwannee basin –Manure causing serious environmental concerns New regulations - grease trap cleanouts required monthly for restaurants –Land application of grease is an environmental problem Local town and prison sewage solids being land applied –Increasing population will cause land application to be problematic Large amounts of food wastes either going to landfills or into municipal waste water –Organic wastes increase cost of waste water treatment and size of landfill One of our Potential Florida Projects One WES digester taking in approx 800 tons per day will fix these problems!
–W–WES consultant with 30 yrs experience with state and federal funding programs assists farmers in acquiring funds for upgrading manure separation equipment –F–Farmers get income for selling nutrients after all financial obligations have been paid –N–No out of pocket costs to farmers –F–Farmers get back nutrients in solution – much easier to regulate and prevent over applying –W–WES gets income from tipping fees and selling power –S–Society wastes converted from a problem to a solution –N–Nutrient and Odor problem solved –D–Dairy Farmers stay in business –F–Florida needs Dairy Farmers! How our program works
–Importing milk uses fossil fuels –Using fossil fuels increases GHGs –Dairy Manure very necessary for co-digestion – this will help clean up wastes from many sources including wastes from other renewables (stillage from ethanol, glycerine from biodiesel) –Dairies can be important contributors to renewable energy –Florida dairies keep jobs and money in Florida Why FLORIDA dairy farms are important for meeting GHG reductions and RPS
Methane very reliable – dont have to wait for wind to blow or sun to shine 4 to 6 digesters At least 3 days feedstock Three to four 1.6 MW generators Located near power users – DISTRIBUTED POWER Possibility for a number of plants in Florida Advantages of Waste Energy Solutions biogas for Utility Providers
Removing 1 ton methane from atmosphere = getting rid of 21 tons CO 2 Burning methane converts the methane to CO 2 CO 2 Equivalent for methane is 18 Burning methane does not increase carbon in the carbon cycle. Methane 21 times worse than CO2 in causing global warming Why burning methane from biogas is so important for the environment
Atmosphere CO 2 Through Photosynthesis Plants use CO 2 make carbon compounds Contemporary Carbon Cycle Plants consumed as food Animal and plant Respiration produces CO 2 Much of the carbon consumed ends up in Manure Carbon sources Food Wastes from meat or plant sources, decaying of organic material CH 4 + 2O 2 = CO 2 + 2H 2 O Forest Fires Burning of biomass Methane Burned
Grain, grass, food CO 2 In Atmosphere Crops grown and harvested over several months Carbon continually recycled Manure Plants consumed as food FOOD WASTE Digester Methane Burned as fuel A NEED FOR SPEED A fast carbon cycle is important in order to prevent even temporary increase in CO 2
CO 2 In Atmosphere Will take another 20 to 50 years for carbon to be taken out of atmosphere and only if enough trees are planted Slower carbon cycle can increase atmospheric carbon for 20 to 50 years – Burning Forest biomass is a slow cycle 20 to 50 years growth cycle Seedlings
In states with established RPS methane from anaerobic digestion of organic materials is a Tier 1 renewable energy RECs from Tier 1 are given 110% to 140% credits Renewable Portfolio Standards
What is the value of a REC? Wind generation costs - Coal generation costs = price of REC In general it costs 4 to 6 cents more per kW to get wind generation to a customer This difference in costs = the value of the REC The concept of RECs is to equalize the real cost of coal and other fossil fuels with the cost of renewables. It is difficult to estimate this cost but it would include health care costs incurred from pollution as well as environmental costs and global warming risks.
Reasons that a Tradable Renewable Energy Credit system should be used toward meeting the RPS goal tRECs can be used to promote the development of new renewable resources, not simply benefit existing generation Requiring percentage of Renewable Energy Credits to be Tier 1 will decrease the time it takes to reach GHG reduction goals -favoring the cleanest and the greenest. Methane destruction makes anaerobic digesters Tier 1 Tradable credits have proven to be a successful system of reducing other pollutants (reducing acid rain and ozone depletion) Renewable energy producers can sell energy and renewable energy credits separately. An electricity provider that does not own or purchase enough renewable energy capacity may purchase credits instead of capacity RPS legislation using tRECs can add some security to a market for new renewable energy, thereby encouraging investment REC have proven to help build new renewable generation (for example - wind generation increasing quickly in Texas)
Trading system should be limited to Florida only or to the Southeastern states If the trading region is not limited renewable energy suppliers in regions where producing renewable energy is cheaper than in Florida will have a big advantage Encouraging renewable energy suppliers to locate in Florida to build new generation will help Florida meet GHG goals Encouraging renewable energy suppliers to locate in Florida will be good for Floridas economy and energy security