2Biomass Tobacco Profile for more info: firstname.lastname@example.org 50-70 Tons/Acre – the most conservative caseNCSU range was low of 20 tons to high of 70 tons/acre100+ tons/acre – reasonable expectation for TexasGiven Texas growing season, hours of sunlight, etcUse of higher yield tobacco varieties100 tons/acre yields 10 – 20+ tons dry weight**tons sugars - nearly 100% are ideal sugars for biogas & ethanolStandard biofuel conversion formulas apply1-2 tons starchesConversion to biofuel same as corn4-8 tons cellulose with very favorable biofuel properties1-4 tons F1 & F2 proteins with complete amino acid profile** Tobacco variety, growing conditions, harvesting strategyare all important factors
3Basic Tobacco Biofuel Calculations for more info: email@example.com From 100 MT (one acre) of tobacco biomass 10-20% dry weight, or tons total breaks out to:@ 5.5 MT 2.5 MT 8 MT celluloseYields are approximate because of variables like tobacco varietySugars an ideal profile for fermentation90% of total cellulose (7.2 MT) is hemicellulose – lignin is 1.5%Sugar to ethanol – conventional conversion formula (DOE)(11,000) X (.47) X (.97) / (6.6) = 760 gallonsStarch to ethanol – conventional conversion formula (DOE)(5290) X (.90) X (1.11) X (.47) X (.97)/6.6 = 365 gallons ethanolSo we are at 1125 gallons before we also convert the cellulose to biofuelHemicellulose to ethanol (DOE estimates)gallons/ton (using reference data for cellulose from corn stalks) = 720 gallons/acreProbably more because tobacco cellulose is 90% hemicellulose and Corn cellulose is only 28% hemicelluloseAlso tobacco lignin is only 1.5%Provisional total 1845 gallons/acre for 100 tons/acre of tobacco biomassEven at 50 tons/acre we gallons/acre
4Compared With Cellulosic Crops For Biofuel for more info: bdrake@ktc Compared With Cellulosic Crops For Biofuel for more info:High fermentable cellulose yields/acre100 tons fresh tobacco biomass per acre yields 4-8 tons of dry weight cellulose, characterized by:The highest proportion of hemicellulose of any major cellulosic feedstock crop, andThe lowest % lignin of any major cellulosic feedstock cropCorn Stover 35% Tot. Cellulose % hemicellulose % LigninSwitchgrass % Tot. Cellulose % hemicellulose % LigninSugar Cane % Tot. Cellulose % hemicellulose % LigninTobacco % Tot. Cellulose % hemicellulose % Lignin
5Biofuel Feedstock Potential for more info: firstname.lastname@example.org Tobacco has far greater environmental rangeTobacco has more economic byproductsTobacco has more flexible crop management requirementsTobacco doesn’t displace food cropsCan be produced on marginal landUses far less land per million gallons of fuel outputCompare: 50,000,000 gallon/year ethanol plantRequires 178,000 acres of 100 Bushels/AcreAt $4.50/bushel feedstock cost is $80 million50 Million Gallon plant would require 50,000 acres of biomass 100 tons/acreAt $10/ton for biomass tobacco feedstock cost is $50 millionEven at 50 Tons/acre biomass tobacco would only need 100,000 acres to supply a 50 million gallon plantProcessing and operating costs significantly less than corn, grain, cane etcPerhaps possible to pay growers in fuel credits, not cashCo-locate with tobacco-based biogas electricity, biodiesel, & co-products processing plants for added revenues & profit centers
7Tobacco Biogas Electricity Basics – First Look At This Data 1 MW electricity generationRequires 5681 m3 CH4 per dayProven yield = 550M3/day of total biogas per ton of fresh tobaccoThis from a Virginia/Burley mix; other varieties likely higher yield5681 m3 of methane = 550 m3 biogas/ton MOS tobacco * 55% (methane content) * 18% (solid matter) * 92 % (biodegradability) = 114 wet tons fresh tobacco/day400 acres/year 100 tons/acreIdeal substrate composition = 70% tobacco/30% manure2 MW = 56,000 wet tons/year or 560 acres at 100 tons/acreLess than 2X acreage of a 1MW plant due to engine efficienciesLarger generator engine, more KW per M3 of biogas4 MW = 110,000 wet tons/year or 1100 acres at 100 tons/acreLess than 4X acreage of a 1 MW plant due to engine efficienciesRelatively small acreage requirement allows rotation from year to year even in very small communities
8Biogas - Unlocking Value from Waste Tobacco Biomass xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx550 M3/Ton
9Potential Model for Rural Texas Biogas Electric Low cost decentralized uninterruptible electricity productionExisting Rural Electric & Agricultural Coops become electric power producersFor local consumption and as export energy productFarmers provide biomass for electricity credits and/or cashNo new grid connections neededUnlike wind-generated electricitySell excess into existing grid for urban usersOperate one plant for power, one plant for revenue?RedundancyIf biomass tobacco supply is interrupted for any reason the biogas electricity plant can operate on 100% manureReduced capital & operating costs over conventional electric power generationUtilize existing energy distribution infrastructureShortened pay-back period compared with conventional power generation optionsPower generation independent from rising fuel costs
10Complete Rural Energy Solution? Community Energy Cooperative Community owned co-located cooperative biogas electric, small-scale ethanol, biodiesel, and co-product processing plants1100 acres biomass 100 tons/acre for single 4 MW biogas electricity plantAll capital and operating costs established8 months to turnkey electricityOperates above breakeven selling power to coop members at $0.12/Kwh after paying growers with electricity creditsNot calculating tax credits, incentives, grants etc5000 acres biomass gallons/acre = 7.5 million gallons/year ( ,000 miles/year)Capital requirements & operating costs TBDEthanol output cost may be > $1/gallonAlso provides “insurance” for biogas electric facilityRole of biodiesel needs to be studied – synergies are clear.Co-products would add to ‘community energy coop’ bottom lineCould pay for conversion of all vehicles to use E-85Can bioenergy revenues replace property taxes as a revenue source for government services in small communities?