Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 Notes Chemistry Mr. Nelson 2009. Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions –Covalent Sharing of electrons."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 4 Notes Chemistry Mr. Nelson 2009
Chemical Bonds Three basic types of bonds –Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions –Covalent Sharing of electrons –Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms
Why do atoms bond? Why DONT some atoms bond? –The noble gases – why? Why do other atoms bond, then? –They are more chemically stable when bonded
How do atoms bond? The octet rule –The octet rule, or rule of eight, says that an atom will strive for a full s and p subshell –Atoms will either lose or gain electrons to get 8 in the outer shell –NOTE: when an atom loses or gains electrons, its nucleus remains the same – only the outer electron shell has changed!!!
Bonding and energy changes Energy is the ability to do work Stability is a measure of inability to do work –So, the lower the energy, the more stable something is! When atoms bond, the process favors stability (lower energy). Things will never go from a stable to an unstable state on their own!
Electrons, bonding, and IONS When they do this, they get a CHARGE, because protons (+) and electrons (-) are no longer equal. They are now IONS Positive and negative IONS come together and balance each other out in IONIC BONDS.
Cations and Anions Remember : + + A plussy cat An antion
Ionic Bonding Sodium wants to GIVE an electron, Chlorine wants to GET an electron.
Ionic Bonding The low ionization energy of sodium and the high electronegativity of chlorine is one reason this works so well.
Energetics of Ionic Bonding As we saw in the last chapter, it takes 495 kJ/mol to remove electrons from sodium.
Energetics of Ionic Bonding But these numbers dont explain why the reaction of sodium metal and chlorine gas to form sodium chloride is so exothermic!
Energetics of Ionic Bonding There must be a third piece to the puzzle. What is as yet unaccounted for is the electrostatic attraction between the newly- formed sodium cation and chloride anion.
Lattice Energy This third piece of the puzzle is the lattice energy: –The energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions.
Lattice Energy Lattice energy, then, increases with the charge on the ions. It also increases with decreasing size of ions.
Energetics of Ionic Bonding By accounting for all three energies (ionization energy, eletronegativity, and lattice energy), we can get a good idea of the energetics involved in such a process.
Energetics of Ionic Bonding These phenomena also helps explain the octet rule. Metals, for instance, tend to stop losing electrons once they attain a noble gas configuration because energy would be expended that cannot be overcome by lattice energies.
Naming ions Monatomic ions = –One atom ions Polyatomic ions = –Many atom ions Naming monatomic ions –To name positive ions, just add the word ion –To name negative ions, drop the last part of the word, and add -ide ion
Naming monatomic ions Rubidium loses an electron to become Rb + Rubidium ion Calcium loses two electrons to become Ca 2+ Calcium ion Chlorine gains an electron to become Cl - Chloride ion Oxygen gains two electrons to become O 2- Oxide ion Nitrogen loses three electrons to become N 3- Nitride ion
Compounds made of two monatomic ions These are called BINARY COMPOUNDS You always put the positive part first and the negative part last: Na + + Cl - NaCl Names = name of the positive ion + name of the negative ion: Sodium Chloride
Examples: Name the following
Write the formulas of the following:
Back to ions: Writing Ionic Formulas The nomenclature (naming system): 1.Write the symbols for the ions side by side. Write the cation first. Al 3+ O 2- 2.Find the lowest common multiple that will make the charges on each ion cancel out Al 3+ O 2- 3.Check the subscripts for the lowest whole number ratio of ions. Then write the formula. Al 2 O 3
d-block naming Write the electron configuration for Iron. Predict the oxidation number
d-block The d-block (yo) has its own rules –Metals in the d-block have variable charges –All d-block metals must get a ROMAN NUMERAL to indicate the charge –EXAMPLE: copper (I) chloride is made of Cu 1+ and Cl - –EXAMPLE: copper (II) chloride is made of Cu 2+ and Cl - –Dont use roman numerals if you dont have to
Examples Write the formulas for –Tin(II) iodide –Cobalt(III) chloride
Working backward If you are given the formula you need to calculate the charge of the d-block metal. Assume the anion did not change its charge (they are very consistent) Example: FeO, to write the name we need the charge of iron.
A few more examples PbS 2 MnBr 3 Cu 3 P 2
More d-block (old school) Roman numerals are the new way. The old way is based on Latin names –Two endings ic ous ic is for the highest charge ous is for the lower charge –Example Ferric = Iron(III) Ferrous = Iron(II)
Old School The only three I expect you to know are: Tin (Sn) –Stannic = Tin(IV) –Stannous = Tin(II) Copper (Cu) –Cupric = Copper(II) –Cuprous = Copper(I)
Polyatomic ions When two or more ions are clumped together it is a polyatomic ions. They usually end with –ates or -ites
Nomenclature of Oxyanions They are not standard! –Example Sulfate vs Phosphate Nomenclature examples –Perchlorate –ChlorateNitrate –ChloriteNitrite –hypochlorite
Writing formulas for compounds with polyatomic ions Polyatomic ions should ALWAYS be treated like BOY BAND. Dont ever break it up! If you need more than one polyatomic ion to balance a charge, use PARENTHESES ( )
Polyatomic ions Naming compounds that contain polyatomic ions: –The steps are the same: –the name of the first ion + the name of the second: NH 4 + = ammonium ion (polyatomic) Cl - = chloride ion (monatomic) NH 4 Cl = ammonium chloride
Example Write the formulas for: potassium perchlorate tin(IV) sulfate Iron(II) chromate ammonium sulfate
Ionic vs. Metallic bonds In an IONIC BOND, the electrons of one atom (that wants to lose electrons) are donated to the electrons of another atom (that wants to gain electrons). The charges on each ion balance each other out and equal ZERO. In a METALLIC BOND, all the atoms are the same (all copper, for example) and the electrons dont belong to any one atom. They move around a lot – thats why electricity is conducted.
Metallic Bonds A sea of mobile outer electrons. Low ionization energies means the atoms dont hold electrons well.