Presentation on theme: "German and Italian Unification Big Picture: Unification:What makes up a movement for unification? Nationalism – Yes. But what does that mean? – One people."— Presentation transcript:
German and Italian Unification Big Picture: Unification:What makes up a movement for unification? Nationalism – Yes. But what does that mean? – One people (Culture) Yes. – One Language (possibly) – One type of Government (that is a problem!)
German and Italian Unification These two areas, Germany and Italy, will become unified nations for similar and different reasons. Lets look briefly at them, side by side, and see the similarities between them.
German and Italian Unification German States – Prussia: Greatest State Dynamic Leader – Bismarck: Like a Prime Minister. Runs the show – William I: King of Prussia Italian States – Piedmont Sardinia: Greatest State Dynamic Leader: – Cavour: Like a Prime Minister-- Runs the show – Victor Emmanuel: Like a King of Sardinia – Mazzini/Garibaldi- Both want a Republic, Cavour does not.
German and Italian Unification German States Issues: – Prussia seeks a common German State – They will lead,others have to follow – Has to deal with liberals who do not want $ spent on the military – Austria, another German State, is nearly as strong as Prussia Italian States Issues: – Have never been unified since the fall of Rome (476 A.D) – Have separate Agendas North = Industry South = Agriculture – Have a strong foreign presence in their area Austria France
German and Italian Unification German States Who wants what? – Bismarck – wants to increase the size of Prussia – If it means a unified Germany, so be it – He is a Prussian before he is a German – William I – is willing to let Bismarck run the show Italian States Who wants what? – Cavour – feels that a strong, industrial Piedmont will lead the rest of the states. $ = Power = unification – Mazzini and Garibaldi want unification based on political ideology: A Republic – Victor Emmanuel - is willing to let Cavour run the show
German and Italian Unification German States Obstacles to Unification – Austria- they are a powerful German State with a different agenda than Prussia – France: they control land that used to belong to Prussia – Political Differences- Between Bismarck and the wealthy classes (over $ for war) Italian States Obstacles to Unification – Austria – They control/manage Piedmont – France – They control parts of the Center of Italy – Political Differences – Between Cavour, who has no problem having a King as long as Italy is unified, and Garibaldi, who wants Italy to be a Republic.
German and Italian Unification German States Steps to Unification Bismarck raises $ for the Military Allies with Russia to take back Schleswig and Holstein Provokes Austria to was and crushes them in 7 Weeks Provokes France and crushes them (revenge for Napoleon) Establishes Germany in 1871 Italian States Steps to Unification Sardinia Provokes Austria into battle and beats them (with French help) Garibaldi gathers his army Red Shirts in the south, they conquer and move north Cavour links with Garibaldi,and France is Finally is driven from Italy because they were being beaten by Prussia
German and Italian Unification German States Results of Unification – A strong, Industrialized and Militarized German – Austria is on its own – Increased Tension between France and Germany – The seeds of the Germany we will see in WWI Italian States Results of Unification – Division between North and South Italy – Political Unity, but not cultural or social unity – The connection, of Unification, between Italy and Germany that will make them allies in WWI & WWII
"Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable... the art of the next best." "Laws are like sausages. It's better not to see them being made." "Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied." "I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made." "A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one." The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutionsthat was the blunder of 1848 and 1849but by blood and iron. "Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans." (Bismarck's prediction on what would trigger the next war)