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German and Italian Unification

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Presentation on theme: "German and Italian Unification"— Presentation transcript:

1 German and Italian Unification
Big Picture: Unification:What makes up a movement for unification? Nationalism – Yes. But what does that mean? One people (Culture) Yes. One Language (possibly) One type of Government (that is a problem!)

2 German and Italian Unification
These two areas, Germany and Italy, will become unified nations for similar and different reasons. Let’s look briefly at them, side by side, and see the similarities between them.

3 German and Italian Unification
German States Prussia: Greatest State Dynamic Leader Bismarck: Like a Prime Minister. Runs the show William I: King of Prussia Italian States Piedmont Sardinia: Greatest State Dynamic Leader: Cavour: Like a Prime Minister-- Runs the show Victor Emmanuel: Like a King of Sardinia Mazzini/Garibaldi- Both want a Republic, Cavour does not.

4 German and Italian Unification
German States Issues: Prussia seeks a common German State They will lead,others have to follow Has to deal with liberals who do not want $ spent on the military Austria, another German State, is nearly as strong as Prussia Italian States Issues: Have never been unified since the fall of Rome (476 A.D) Have separate Agendas North = Industry South = Agriculture Have a strong foreign presence in their area Austria France

5 German and Italian Unification
German States Who wants what? Bismarck – wants to increase the size of Prussia If it means a unified Germany, so be it He is a Prussian before he is a German William I – is willing to let Bismarck run the show Italian States Who wants what? Cavour – feels that a strong, industrial Piedmont will lead the rest of the states. $ = Power = unification Mazzini and Garibaldi want unification based on political ideology: A Republic Victor Emmanuel - is willing to let Cavour run the show

6 German and Italian Unification
German States Obstacles to Unification Austria- they are a powerful “German State” with a different agenda than Prussia France: they control land that used to belong to Prussia Political Differences- Between Bismarck and the wealthy classes (over $ for war) Italian States Obstacles to Unification Austria – They control/manage Piedmont France – They control parts of the Center of Italy Political Differences – Between Cavour, who has no problem having a King as long as Italy is unified, and Garibaldi, who wants Italy to be a Republic.

7 German and Italian Unification
German States Steps to Unification Bismarck raises $ for the Military Allies with Russia to take back Schleswig and Holstein Provokes Austria to was and crushes them in 7 Weeks Provokes France and crushes them (revenge for Napoleon) Establishes Germany in 1871 Italian States Steps to Unification Sardinia Provokes Austria into battle and beats them (with French help) Garibaldi gathers his army “Red Shirts” in the south, they conquer and move north Cavour links with Garibaldi,and France is Finally is driven from Italy because they were being beaten by Prussia

8 German and Italian Unification
German States Results of Unification A strong, Industrialized and Militarized German Austria is “on its own” Increased Tension between France and Germany The seeds of the Germany we will see in WWI Italian States Results of Unification Division between North and South Italy Political Unity, but not cultural or social unity The connection, of Unification, between Italy and Germany that will make them allies in WWI & WWII

9 Bismarck Quotations "Politics is the art of the possible, the attainable the art of the next best." "Laws are like sausages. It's better not to see them being made." "Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied." "I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made." "A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one." “The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions—that was the blunder of 1848 and 1849—but by blood and iron.” "Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans." (Bismarck's prediction on what would trigger the next war)

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