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LearningLearning Chapter 5 Learning The process by which practice or experience results in a relatively permanent change in behavior Conditioning –A.

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Presentation on theme: "LearningLearning Chapter 5 Learning The process by which practice or experience results in a relatively permanent change in behavior Conditioning –A."— Presentation transcript:

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2 LearningLearning Chapter 5

3 Learning The process by which practice or experience results in a relatively permanent change in behavior Conditioning –A simple form of learning in which a specific pattern of behaviors is learned in the presence of well-defined stimuli

4 Classical Conditioning

5 Learning in which a response naturally caused by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus Ivan Pavlov –Accidentally discovered classical conditioning –His experiments on salivation in dogs turned into research on learning

6 Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) –A stimulus that automatically causes a specific response in an organism –And example of a US would be food Unconditioned response (UR) –The response caused by a US –The UR is automatic and unlearned –An example of a UR is salivation in response to food

7 Elements of Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) –A formerly neutral stimulus that is paired with a US and eventually causes the desired response all by itself –An example of a CS is the bell in Pavlovs studies Conditioned Response (CR) –The learned response to the CS –An example is salivation in response to the bell

8 Classical Conditioning Procedure Before Conditioning Food (US) Salivation (UR) Bell (CS) No Response

9 Classical Conditioning Procedure During Conditioning Bell (CS) Food (US) Salivation (UR)

10 Classical Conditioning Procedure After Conditioning Bell (CS) Salivation (CR)

11 Classical Conditioning In Humans Many phobias are the result of classical conditioning –The Little Albert experiment demonstrated a classically conditioned phobia Desensitization therapy –A technique that uses classical conditioning to treat phobias –Person learns to relax in presence of stimulus that used to be upsetting

12 Classical Conditioning in Humans Classical conditioning is selective –Preparedness is the notion that humans are predisposed to develop certain phobias because they have survival value –May explain common fears such as dark, heights, and snakes

13 Classical Conditioning in Humans Taste aversion –Learned association between the taste of a certain food and a feeling of nausea or revulsion –This learning can occur quickly, often with only one pairing –Speed of learning is likely related to survival instincts

14 Operant Conditioning

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16 Learning in which an organisms behavior is followed by a reward or punishment Organism learns to perform behavior in order to gain a reward or avoid a punishment

17 Elements of Operant Conditioning Reinforcer –A stimulus or event that follows a behavior and makes that behavior more likely to occur again Punisher –A stimulus or event that follows a behavior and makes that behavior less likely to occur again

18 Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcer (+) –Adds something rewarding following a behavior, making that behavior more likely to occur again –Giving a dog a treat for fetching a ball is an example Negative reinforcer (-) –Removes something unpleasant from the environment following a behavior, making that behavior more likely to occur again –Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache is an example

19 Punishment Goal of punishment is to decrease the occurrence of a behavior Effective punishment –Should occur as soon as possible after the behavior –Should be sufficient, i.e., strong enough –Should be certain, occurring every time the behavior does –Should be consistent

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21 Punishment Not as effective as reinforcement Does not teach proper behavior, only suppresses undesirable behavior Causes upset that can impede learning May give impression that inflicting pain is acceptable

22 Operant Conditioning is Selective Operant conditioning techniques work best with behaviors that would typically occur in a specific situation Superstitious behavior –Tendency to repeat behaviors that are followed closely by a reinforcer, even if they are not related –For example, a particular pair of socks might become lucky if something good happened when you wore them

23 Learned Helplessness Failure to try to avoid an unpleasant stimulus because in the past it was unavoidable Possible model for depression in humans Powerlessness Abusive Homes Poverty Reservation System Welfare-Dependency Cycle Attributes

24 Soda Machine Slot Machine Sweat Shop Lacrosse GameSalaries

25 Continuous Reinforcement Variable Ratio Fixed Ratio Variable Interval Fixed Interval

26 Cognitive Learning Learning that depends on mental activity that is not directly observable Involves such processes as attention, expectation, thinking, and memory Observational Learning Social Learning Theory focuses on what we learn from observing other people Observational or vicarious learning occurs when we see the consequences of other peoples behavior

27 Parenting Styles Permissive-Indulgent More responsive than demanding Nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation and avoid confrontation Fail to set appropriate limits Results: disrespectful, immature, impulsive Permissive-Indifferent Low in both responsiveness and in level of demand Neglectful & inattentive Little emotional support Result: overly dependent, lack social skills, and self control

28 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Highly rigid Obedience- and status- oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation Well-ordered & structured environments w) clearly stated rules Result: poor communication, moody, distrustful, withdrawn Authoritative Demanding and responsive Firm structure and guidance Assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. Result: self reliant & responsible, self- regulated as well as cooperative.

29 Parenting Prompts 1.What are the styles among team members, and provide your best reasoning for choosing each style. Defend it. 2.Describe the most common type you have observed among various relationships & within different households 3.Which method(s) is/are portrayed in the media; which is the most prevalent; and to what extent has the media influenced perceptions of parenting styles--as an example of the cognitive and observational learning processes?

30 Concepts Section 1 Learning Conditioning Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Unconditioned Response (UR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) Section 2 Operant Conditioning Reinforcers Punishers Positive Reinforcers Negative Reinforcers Punishment Learned Helplessness

31 Concepts Section 3 Skinner Box Shaping Extinction Spontaneous Recovery Schedule of Reinforcement Section 4 Cognitive Learning Social Learning Theory Observational Learning

32 Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery Classical –US and CS are no longer paired, eliminating the CR = Extinction –Spontaneous recovery occurs when the CR temporarily returns without additional training Operant –occurs when reinforcement is stopped, eliminating the conditioned behavior –Spontaneous recovery occurs when behavior temporarily returns without additional training

33 Schedules of Reinforcement Interval schedules –Reinforcement depends on the passing of time –Fixed-interval schedule Reinforcement follows the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed Example: receiving a paycheck every two weeks –Variable-interval schedule Reinforcement follows the first behavior after a variable amount of time has passed Example: pop quizzes

34 Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio schedules –Reinforcement depends on the number of responses made –Fixed-ratio schedule Reinforcement follows a fixed number of behaviors Example: being paid on a piecework basis –Variable-ratio schedule Reinforcement follows a variable number of behaviors Example: playing slot machines

35 Schedules Part 1) Create an example of each Schedule of Reinforcement…then Part 2) Justify how each meets the criteria for their respective Schedule. Sequence as follows: 1. Fixed Interval 2. Variable Interval 3. Fixed Ratio 4. Variable Ratio

36 Response Patterns to Schedules of Reinforcement


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