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Chapter 6.1 Atoms & their interactions Units of Matter ….. l Atoms l Elements l Compounds & Molecules lClC, O, H, N, S lClCO 2, H 2 0, C 6 H 12 0 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6.1 Atoms & their interactions Units of Matter ….. l Atoms l Elements l Compounds & Molecules lClC, O, H, N, S lClCO 2, H 2 0, C 6 H 12 0 6."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 6.1 Atoms & their interactions

3 Units of Matter ….. l Atoms l Elements l Compounds & Molecules lClC, O, H, N, S lClCO 2, H 2 0, C 6 H

4 Common Molecules

5 Atoms of the same Element: l Same number of protons, electrons & neutrons l Same atomic structure

6 Atoms l Germanium Ge l Tunneling Microscope l Computer enhancement

7 Atomic Models

8 Rules for Bohr model: Atomic number = l # electrons = l # protons 1st shell = 2 paired electrons 2nd shell up to 8 3rd shell up to 8 l (-, outer shell) l (+, nucleus) Nucleus +2P,N ee He

9 Ions l Atoms that l Loose or l Gain l Electrons

10 Ionic Bonds =

11 Covalent BONDS l Share electrons l Stronger than ionic that l Donate or Gain electrons

12 pH l?l? pH l?l? pH scale l?l?affect us l?l?pH balanced shampoo

13 WATER: H 2 O l How many atoms? l ?Types of bonds? l ?Strong or Weak l ? Break

14 Water molecule…... l Covalent bonds l Polar l + charge at O end l - charge at H end l Pull apart ions

15 H 2 O-->H+ & OH- l H + = Hydrogen ion l in excess= acid l OH - = Hydroxide ion l in excess= base

16 How frequently do they break apart? l (10) - 7 concentration of H+ l l 1 for every 10 million water molecules!

17 pH=measurement l -log of the {H+} l for water l = (10) - 7 l pH = 7 pH 2 pH4 pH8 pH10 pH12

18 ?H 2 0 a neutral pH l #hydrogen ions = #hydroxide ions. l H + = (10) - 7 l OH - = (10) - 7

19 ? Makes an acid l Increase the relative amount of H+ l adding a weak acid= l {H+}= l ? pH l pH = 5

20 ?Base l {H+} lower than l tips the balance of H+ to OH- l = more OH- than H+. l = base with pH 8 l =alkaline

21 ?strong or weak l The more acid the __________the pH number. l (lower) (1-5) l The more alkaline, the ________________ the pH (higher, above 7) (8-12)

22 Examples l Lemons l Vinegar l Aspirin l Battery acid sour

23 Bases l Ammonia l Lye l Sodium hydroxide l Baking soda slippery

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26 ? living systems & pH challenges? l ? is low body pH l ?extreme pHs & cells l ?spills of strong acids or bases on your hand?

27 ?BUFFERS l ?buffered asprin l buffers take up excess H + or OH - ions l maintain constant pH l blood Homeostasis: CO 2 + H 2 O = H 2 CO 3


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