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Ch.44 Controlling the Internal Environment

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1 Ch.44 Controlling the Internal Environment
I. Thermoregulation II. Osmoregulation III. Excretion

2 Thermoregulation Heat exchange review Fig 44.1 Ectothermy example:
Endothermy example:

3 Thermoregulation p.871 Feedback mechanisms (Fig 44.8)
Hypothalamus control (Ch 48) Responses to high body temp? Responses to low body temp? Acclimatization (some mammalian cell proteins) Torpor (hibernation, estivation)

4 Water Balance & Waste Disposal
Nitrogenous wastes: Ammonia, urea, uric acid (fig44.10) Osmoregulation: (fig 44.11) Stenohaline, euryhaline Anhydrobiosis (water bears p. 879)


6 Salt water fish Fresh water fish


8 Excretory Systems p.879 Fig 44.18, anatomy terms

9 Excretory Systems p.879 What is the function of the kidneys?
1. Filtration NEPHRONS of the kidneys Blood pressure forces blood into the glomerulus; water,urea, small solutes are forced through the filter. Nonselective filtration

10 Excretory Systems in the Nephron
Proximal tubule Loop of Henley Distal tubule (collecting duct) 99% of water is reabsorbed back into the body

11 Excretory Systems: in the Nephron
Reabsorption Sugar, vitamins, nutrients, water Some salts


13 Excretory Systems Feedback circuits: ADH, hypothalamus
RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)

14 Excretory Systems


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