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Activity 16 Title: Elements and the Periodic Table.

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Activity 16 Title: Elements and the Periodic Table.

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1 Activity 16 Title: Elements and the Periodic Table

2 Element Family Cards Locate them on Student Sheet 16.1 –Alkali Metals –Alkaline Earth Metals –Halogens –Noble Gases

3 Families Of the four families you investigated, which two seem the most alike? Which one seems most different from the others? What kinds of properties can you use to distinguish groups of elements?

4 Properties Classify Elements Physical Properties –Color –Metals/Nonmetals/Metalloids (Semimetals) –Solid, Liquid, or Gas at Room Temperature Chemical Properties –Reactivity –Number of Bonds they form with Hydrogen

5 Color Color is not a characteristic of such mixtures as plastic products, which can have coloring agents added. Color is a characteristic of pure elements, such as the characteristic yellow of sulfur or the characteristic colors of copper and gold.

6 Problem: What are elements and how do they relate to compounds? Hypothesis/Initial Thoughts: Procedure: Follow the procedure on pg. B-23 Read B-22

7 Activity 16 Vocabulary Chemical Formula –A shorthand notation to describe elements and compounds and their reactions HCl + NaOH --- H 2 O + NaCl Compound –A chemical combination of elements Atom –The smallest particle that is characteristic of an element H2OH2OO

8 Stopping to Think Do not need to be in complete sentences. Summarize what you just read.

9 Data/Observation: In what way were the ancient Greek philosophers right about elements? –Greeks were right about: everything on earth is made of elements In what way were the ancient Greek philosophers wrong? –Greeks thought the elements were earth, air, water, and fire. Stopping to Think 1 (STT #1)

10 Stopping to Think 2 How did Mendeleev build on other scientists work? –He analyzed the data other scientists collected about the properties of the 63 elements that were known at the time. How did other scientists build on Mendeleevs work? –They predicted and found other elements based on the periodic table and revised the arrangement of the table to fit new discoveries. Scientists still use the table first arranged by Mendeleev to predict the properties and existence of newly created elements.

11 Stopping to Think 3 lithium (Li) –metal carbon (C) –nonmetal sulfur (S) –nonmetal calcium (Ca) –metal titanium (Ti) –metal bromine (Br) –nonmetal Decide whether the following are metals or nonmetals:

12 Stopping to Think 4 Find magnesium on the periodic table. What is magnesiums chemical symbol? –Mg What family does magnesium belong to? –Group 2, alkaline earth metals. Is magnesium a solid, a liquid, or a gas? –A solid Based on its family, would you expect magnesium to be very reactive, somewhat reactive, or not reactive at all? –Very reactive since it is in the alkaline earth metal family.

13 Stopping to Think 5 What are two ways that compounds are different from the elements that form them? –First, elements are made of one kind of atom, while compounds are made of molecules that contain more than one kind of atom. –Second, compounds have different chemical and physical properties from the elements that make them.

14 Stopping to Think 6 The chemical formula for baking soda is NaHCO 3. What elements are in baking soda? How many of each type of atom is represented by the formula for baking soda? –Baking soda contains 1 sodium, 1 hydrogen, 1 carbon, and 3 oxygens.

15 Discussion Symbols Key Groups of similar elements are often found in columns –Families –Similar Physical and Chemical Properties –Periodic Table helps to predict or categorize an elements properties based on its position

16 Families on the Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties. Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table. Elements in each family react differently with other elements.

17 Elements and Compounds Compounds are usually not at all like the elements that make them. –Sugar contains: Carbon, the solid that forms coal and diamonds; Oxygen, necessary for human respiration; Hydrogen, an explosive odorless gas. Sugar is a white, crystalline, edible solid. –Salt contains Sodium, a metal Chlorine, a poisonous gas Salt is an edible solid

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