Activity 16 Title: Elements and the Periodic Table.
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1Title: Elements and the Periodic Table Activity 16Title: Elements and the Periodic Table
2Element Family Cards Locate them on Student Sheet 16.1 Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth MetalsHalogensNoble Gases
3FamiliesOf the four families you investigated, which two seem the most alike?Which one seems most different from the others?What kinds of properties can you use to distinguish groups of elements?
4Properties Classify Elements Physical PropertiesColorMetals/Nonmetals/Metalloids (Semimetals)Solid, Liquid, or Gas at Room TemperatureChemical PropertiesReactivityNumber of Bonds they form with Hydrogen
5ColorColor is not a characteristic of such mixtures as plastic products, which can have coloring agents added.Color is a characteristic of pure elements, such as the characteristic yellow of sulfur or the characteristic colors of copper and gold.
6Read B-22Problem: What are elements and how do they relate to compounds?Hypothesis/Initial Thoughts:Procedure: Follow the procedure on pg. B-23
7Activity 16 Vocabulary H2O O Chemical Formula Compound Atom A shorthand notation to describe elements and compounds and their reactionsHCl + NaOH --- H2O + NaClCompoundA chemical combination of elementsAtomThe smallest particle that is characteristic of an elementH2OO
8Stopping to Think Do not need to be in complete sentences. Summarize what you just read.
9Stopping to Think 1 (STT #1) Data/Observation:Stopping to Think 1 (STT #1)In what way were the ancient Greek philosophers right about elements?Greeks were right about:everything on earth is made of elementsIn what way were the ancient Greek philosophers wrong?Greeks thought the elements were earth, air, water, and fire.
10Stopping to Think 2 How did Mendeleev build on other scientists’ work? He analyzed the data other scientists collected about the properties of the 63 elements that were known at the time.How did other scientists build on Mendeleev’s work?They predicted and found other elements based on the periodic table and revised the arrangement of the table to fit new discoveries. Scientists still use the table first arranged by Mendeleev to predict the properties and existence of newly created elements.
11Stopping to Think 3Decide whether the following are metals or nonmetals:lithium (Li)metalcarbon (C)nonmetalsulfur (S)calcium (Ca)metaltitanium (Ti)bromine (Br)nonmetal
12Stopping to Think 4Find magnesium on the periodic table. What is magnesium’s chemical symbol?MgWhat family does magnesium belong to?Group 2, alkaline earth metals.Is magnesium a solid, a liquid, or a gas?A solidBased on its family, would you expect magnesium to be very reactive, somewhat reactive, or not reactive at all?Very reactive since it is in the alkaline earth metal family.
13Stopping to Think 5What are two ways that compounds are different from the elements that form them?First, elements are made of one kind of atom, while compounds are made of molecules that contain more than one kind of atom.Second, compounds have different chemical and physical properties from the elements that make them.
14Stopping to Think 6The chemical formula for baking soda is NaHCO3. What elements are in baking soda? How many of each type of atom is represented by the formula for baking soda?Baking soda contains 1 sodium, 1 hydrogen, 1 carbon, and 3 oxygens.
15Discussion Symbols Key Groups of similar elements are often found in columnsFamiliesSimilar Physical and Chemical PropertiesPeriodic Table helps to predict or categorize an element’s properties based on its position
16Families on the Periodic Table Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their chemical properties.Each family has a specific name to differentiate it from the other families in the periodic table.Elements in each familyreact differently withother elements.
17Elements and Compounds Compounds are usually not at all like the elements that make them.Sugar contains:Carbon, the solid that forms coal and diamonds;Oxygen, necessary for human respiration;Hydrogen, an explosive odorless gas.Sugar is a white, crystalline, edible solid.Salt containsSodium, a metalChlorine, a poisonous gasSalt is an edible solid