Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Phylum: Chordata Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Phylum: Chordata Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord"— Presentation transcript:

1 Phylum: Chordata Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Postanal tail

2 Phylum: Chordata Notochord: long flexible rod between gut and nerve cord Present in all embryos Fluid-filled cells in fibrous tissue Length of animal, ‘skeleton’

3 Phylum: Chordata Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Ectoderm, rolls into tube
Becomes central nervous system Inverts have ventral, solid cords

4 Phylum: Chordata Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Post-anal tail
Filter feeders (?) Modified for gas exchange Muscular Post-anal tail Skeletal and muscular; Propulsion Digestive system extends length of non-chordates

5 Taxonomy Domain – Eukarya Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata
Subphylum: Urochordata – ‘sea squirts’ Subphylum: Cephalochordata - lancelets Subphylum: Vertebrata

6 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata
Tunicates; Sea squirts Marine, sessile Larva are free swimming; (have all characteristics) Adult Larva

7 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Cephalochordata
Lancelets Bladelike Marine Burrow into sand Filter feeders

8 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata
Hagfishes - jawless marine fish Cartilaginous skull and axial rod of cartilage derived from the notochord Lack vertebrae

9 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata
Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Post anal tail

10 Taxonomy Domain – Eukarya Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata Class Agnatha – Jawless fish Class Chondrichthyes – cartilage fish Class Osteithyes – bony fish Class Amphibia – amphibians Class Reptilia – reptiles Class Aves – birds Class Mammalia

11 Vertebrates 5 basic groups: Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals

12 Fish Characteristics Aquatic; gills for respiration
Sexes separate; internal and external fertilization Oviparous – lay eggs (Nemo) Ovoviviparous – eggs remain in body until hatched (sea horses, some sharks) Two chambered heart Ectotherms (‘cold-blooded’) – body temperature matches environment Most covered in scales

13 Fish 3 types: Agnatha – jawless Cartilaginous Bony

14 Class: Agnatha Lamprey eels Scaleless Oviparous
Ectoparasites Scaleless Oviparous Anadromous or freshwater Edible – no bones

15 Class: Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous fish - harks, rays, skates Jaws, teeth of bone; skeleton of cartilage Flexible, fast, agile Sexes separate; fertilization is internal Almost all marine (bull shark, ray) Covered in placoid scales (‘dental ridge’) More efficient, quieter swimmers

16 Class: Chondrichthyes
Predators/scavengers Excellent senses: Smell Lateral line system – changes in water pressure caused by vibrations in water Electrosensors on nose

17 Class: Chondrichthyes
Rays, skates Dorso-ventrally flattened Bottom dwellers Crush molluscs Whiplike tail, barb

18 Skate or Ray? Skates – ‘mermaid’s purse’, sharp teeth; fat, fleshy tail with no barb Rays – viviparous; flat, crushing teeth, long, whip-like tail with barbs Body shape

19 Sharks 440 species Carnivores, some filter feeders Liver for buoyancy
Not efficient so must keep moving Ram ventilation – force fresh water over their gills Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Pelagic, coastal, bottom dwellers

20 Class: Osteichthyes Skeleton is bone; calcium phosphate
Marine, freshwater Operculum – bony plate covering gills Protection Pumps water over gills; without moving Swim bladder – gas-filled sac (buoyant) 2 pairs of paired appendages


22 Osteichthyes Scales (exceptions) Ectotherms (tuna, swordfish)
Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Teeth Dioecious External and internal fertilization Oviparous and ovoviviparous Mating, territoriality behaviors

23 Cold blood from the gills is passed near warmer blood from internal muscles; slow exchange of heat to colder blood. Fish are much more active in colder waters body lengths/sec

24 Osteichthyes 2 types: Actinopterygii - ray-finned – ‘rays’ of thin bone in fins Sarcopterygii - lung fish, Coelocanths

25 Class: Amphibia “dual life” Metamorphosis – egg, tadpole, adult
Aquatic then terrestrial Algae then predators Eggs in water Adults on land (mostly) Gills to lungs/skin Lateral line to eardrum

26 Amphibians Three chambered heart Ectotherms
Smooth skin – diffusion of oxygen Many retain gills as adults Near or in water; moist soil, burrows High humidity; tropical rain forests 3 types: frogs/toads, salamanders, Caecilians

27 Amphibians Dioecious External fertilization, large numbers of eggs
Mating behaviors; Vocalizations

28 Amphibia Caecilians, ‘blind lizard’ legless, almost blind
Burrow in soft mud, tropical

29 Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class Reptilia Poikilothermic, ectotherms Lower caloric intake, Less active, ambush predators 3-chambered heart Scales; keratin (protein) Lungs Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores

30 Class: Reptilia Dioecious; internal fertilization, cloaca
Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Amniotic Egg; Amniotic fluid and shell Prevents desiccation; lay eggs on land

31 Class: Reptilia 4 Orders: Testudines – turtles
Squamata – lizards and snakes Sphenodontia – tuatara Crocodalia - ?

32 Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Turtles, tortoises, terrapins
Omnivores, no teeth Migration Marine, fresh, terrestrial Internal fertilization Oviparous – on land

33 Class: Reptilia Order Squamata Lizards, snakes Carnivores, herbivores
External ear Heat sensing organs

34 Class: Reptilia Order: Crocodalia Ectotherms 4-chambered heart
Parental care

35 Hearts: Vertebrates Have Excellent Closed Circulatory Systems
2–chambered 3-chambered 4-chambered

36 Vertebrate Hearts 2 chambered
Fish (Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) Oxygenated blood goes directly to tissues without returning to heart

37 Vertebrate Hearts 3 chambered: Amphibians, reptiles
Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood can mix

38 Vertebrate Hearts 4 chambered: Birds, mammals
Oxygenated blood is separated from deoxygenated blood (more efficient gas exchange)

39 Birds Endotherms 4-chambered heart Feathers Camouflage Mate attraction
Flight Increased surface area Foil Camouflage Mate attraction Insulation

40 Flight Feathers Strong wing muscles Hollow bones - decrease weight
Increase surface area without increasing weight Create a foil shape (lift) Strong wing muscles Highly oxygenated Large keel for attachment of muscle Hollow bones - decrease weight Parabronchi – ‘lung’ spread throughout body Reduced body parts

41 Sternum, Keel; large surface area for attachment of flight muscles
Hollow bones

42 Bird Characteristics Scaly legs – reptiles?
Keratin beak – no teeth (weight) Dioecious; dimorphic Oviparous – amniotic egg Most have high parental care

43 Mammals Endotherms 4-chambered heart Fur/hair – most (bristles)
Mammary glands – milk Dioecious; dimorphic 3 basic types: monotremes, marsupials, placentals

44 Class: Mammalia - Monotremes
Duck-billed platypus, spiny echidna Oviparous No nipples – patches on skin, milk ‘oozes’ out Cloaca

45 Mammals: Marsupials Pouched - marsupium Viviparous
Young born very altricial (helpless) Climb into pouch attach to nipple and suckle to fuller development Most in Australia; opposum

46 Class: Mammalia - Placentals
Viviparous Young develop attached to mother’s body via a placenta Nutrient/waste exchange O2, sugar Surrounded by amnion Most common

Download ppt "Phylum: Chordata Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google