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Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Postanal tail Phylum: Chordata.

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Presentation on theme: "Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Postanal tail Phylum: Chordata."— Presentation transcript:

1 Deuterostomes Notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Pharyngeal gill slits Muscular Postanal tail Phylum: Chordata

2 Notochord: long flexible rod between gut and nerve cord – –Present in all embryos – –Fluid-filled cells in fibrous tissue – –Length of animal, skeleton Phylum: Chordata

3 Dorsal, hollow nerve cord – –Ectoderm, rolls into tube – –Becomes central nervous system – –Inverts have ventral, solid cords Phylum: Chordata

4 Pharyngeal gill slits – –Filter feeders (?) – –Modified for gas exchange Muscular Post-anal tail – –Skeletal and muscular; Propulsion – –Digestive system extends length of non-chordates Phylum: Chordata

5 Taxonomy Domain – Eukarya Domain – Eukarya –Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata Phylum – Chordata –Subphylum: Urochordata – sea squirts –Subphylum: Cephalochordata - lancelets –Subphylum: Vertebrata

6 Phylum: Chordata Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Urochordata Tunicates; Sea squirts Marine, sessile Larva are free swimming; (have all characteristics) Larva Adult

7 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Cephalochordata Lancelets Bladelike Marine Burrow into sand Filter feeders

8 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum - Vertebrata Subphylum - Vertebrata Hagfishes Hagfishes - jawless marine fish – –Cartilaginous skull and axial rod of cartilage derived from the notochord – –Lack vertebrae

9 Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Phylum: Chordata: Phylum: Chordata: –Notochord –Dorsal, hollow nerve cord –Pharyngeal gill slits –Post anal tail

10 Taxonomy Domain – Eukarya Domain – Eukarya –Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordata Phylum – Chordata –Subphylum: Vertebrata Class Agnatha – Jawless fish Class Agnatha – Jawless fish Class Chondrichthyes – cartilage fish Class Chondrichthyes – cartilage fish Class Osteithyes – bony fish Class Osteithyes – bony fish Class Amphibia – amphibians Class Amphibia – amphibians Class Reptilia – reptiles Class Reptilia – reptiles Class Aves – birds Class Aves – birds Class Mammalia Class Mammalia

11 Vertebrates 5 basic groups: 5 basic groups: –Fish –Amphibians –Reptiles –Birds –Mammals

12 Fish Characteristics Aquatic; gills for respiration Sexes separate; internal and external fertilization – –Oviparous – lay eggs (Nemo) – –Ovoviviparous – eggs remain in body until hatched (sea horses, some sharks) heart Two chambered heart Ectotherms (cold-blooded) – body temperature matches environment Most covered in scales

13 Fish 3 types: 3 types: –Agnatha – jawless –Cartilaginous –Bony

14 Class: Agnatha Lamprey eels Lamprey eels –Ectoparasites Scaleless Scaleless Oviparous Oviparous Anadromous or freshwater Anadromous or freshwater Edible – no bones Edible – no bones

15 Class: Chondrichthyes Cartilaginous fish - harks, rays, skates Cartilaginous fish - harks, rays, skates Jaws, teeth of bone; skeleton of cartilage Jaws, teeth of bone; skeleton of cartilage –Flexible, fast, agile Sexes separate; fertilization is internal Sexes separate; fertilization is internal Almost all marine (bull shark, ray) Almost all marine (bull shark, ray) Covered in placoid scales (dental ridge) Covered in placoid scales (dental ridge) –More efficient, quieter swimmers

16 Class: Chondrichthyes Predators/scavengers Predators/scavengers Excellent senses: Excellent senses: –Smell –Lateral line system – changes in water pressure caused by vibrations in water –Electrosensors on nose

17 Rays, skates Rays, skates Dorso-ventrally flattened Dorso-ventrally flattened Bottom dwellers Bottom dwellers Crush molluscs Crush molluscs Whiplike tail, barb Whiplike tail, barb Class: Chondrichthyes

18 Skate or Ray? Skates – mermaids purse, sharp teeth; fat, fleshy tail with no barb Skates – mermaids purse, sharp teeth; fat, fleshy tail with no barb Rays – viviparous; flat, crushing teeth, long, whip-like tail with barbs Rays – viviparous; flat, crushing teeth, long, whip-like tail with barbs Body shape Body shape

19 Sharks 440 species 440 species Carnivores, some filter feeders Carnivores, some filter feeders Liver for buoyancy Liver for buoyancy –Not efficient so must keep moving Ram ventilation – force fresh water over their gills Ram ventilation – force fresh water over their gills Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Pelagic, coastal, bottom dwellers Pelagic, coastal, bottom dwellers

20 Class: Osteichthyes Skeleton is bone; calcium phosphate Marine, freshwater Operculum – bony plate covering gills – –Protection – –Pumps water over gills; without moving Swim bladder – gas-filled sac (buoyant) 2 pairs of paired appendages

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22 Osteichthyes Scales (exceptions) Ectotherms (tuna, swordfish) Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Teeth Dioecious External and internal fertilization Oviparous and ovoviviparous Mating, territoriality behaviors

23 Cold blood from the gills is passed near warmer blood from internal muscles; slow exchange of heat to colder blood. Fish are much more active in colder waters body lengths/sec

24 Osteichthyes 2 types: – –Actinopterygii - ray-finned – rays of thin bone in fins – –Sarcopterygii - lung fish, Coelocanths

25 Class: Amphibia dual life Metamorphosis – egg, tadpole, adult – –Aquatic then terrestrial – –Algae then predators – –Eggs in water – –Adults on land (mostly) – –Gills to lungs/skin – –Lateral line to eardrum

26 Amphibians Three chambered heart Ectotherms Smooth skin – diffusion of oxygen Many retain gills as adults Near or in water; moist soil, burrows High humidity; tropical rain forests 3 types: frogs/toads, salamanders, Caecilians

27 Dioecious External fertilization, large numbers of eggs Mating behaviors; Vocalizations Amphibians

28 Amphibia Caecilians, blind lizard legless, almost blind Caecilians, blind lizard legless, almost blind Burrow in soft mud, tropical Burrow in soft mud, tropical

29 Class Reptilia Class Reptilia Poikilothermic, ectotherms Poikilothermic, ectotherms –Lower caloric intake, –Less active, ambush predators 3-chambered heart 3-chambered heart Scales; keratin (protein) Scales; keratin (protein) Lungs Lungs Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Carnivores, herbivores, omnivores Subphylum: Vertebrata

30 Class: Reptilia Dioecious; internal fertilization, cloaca Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous Amniotic Egg; – –Amniotic fluid and shell – –Prevents desiccation; lay eggs on land

31 Class: Reptilia 4 Orders: 4 Orders: –Testudines – turtles –Squamata – lizards and snakes –Sphenodontia – tuatara –Crocodalia - ?

32 Class: Reptilia Order: Testudines Order: Testudines Turtles, tortoises, terrapins Turtles, tortoises, terrapins Omnivores, no teeth Omnivores, no teeth Migration Migration Marine, fresh, terrestrial Marine, fresh, terrestrial Internal fertilization Internal fertilization Oviparous – on land Oviparous – on land

33 Order Squamata Lizards, snakes Carnivores, herbivores External ear Heat sensing organs Class: Reptilia

34 Order: Crocodalia Order: Crocodalia Ectotherms Ectotherms 4-chambered heart 4-chambered heart Parental care Parental care

35 Hearts: Vertebrates Have Excellent Closed Circulatory Systems 2–chambered3-chambered4-chambered

36 Vertebrate Hearts 2 chambered 2 chambered –Fish (Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes) –Oxygenated blood goes directly to tissues without returning to heart

37 Vertebrate Hearts 3 chambered 3 chambered: – –Amphibians, reptiles – –Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood can mix

38 Vertebrate Hearts 4 chambered 4 chambered: –Birds, mammals –Oxygenated blood is separated from deoxygenated blood (more efficient gas exchange)

39 Birds Endotherms Endotherms 4-chambered heart 4-chambered heart Feathers Feathers –Flight Increased surface area Foil – –Camouflage – –Mate attraction – –Insulation

40 Flight Feathers – –Increase surface area without increasing weight – –Create a foil shape (lift) Strong wing muscles – –Highly oxygenated – –Large keel for attachment of muscle Hollow bones - decrease weight Parabronchi – lung spread throughout body Reduced body parts

41 Sternum, Keel; large surface area for attachment of flight muscles Surface area Hollow bones

42 Bird Characteristics Scaly legs – reptiles? Scaly legs – reptiles? Keratin beak – no teeth (weight) Keratin beak – no teeth (weight) Dioecious; dimorphic Dioecious; dimorphic Oviparous – amniotic egg Oviparous – amniotic egg Most have high parental care Most have high parental care

43 Mammals Endotherms 4-chambered heart Fur/hair – most (bristles) Mammary glands – milk Dioecious; dimorphic 3 3 basic types: monotremes, marsupials, placentals

44 Class: Mammalia - Monotremes Duck-billed platypus, spiny echidna Duck-billed platypus, spiny echidna Oviparous Oviparous No nipples – patches on skin, milk oozes out No nipples – patches on skin, milk oozes out Cloaca Cloaca

45 Mammals: Marsupials Pouched - marsupium Viviparous Young born very altricial (helpless) Climb into pouch attach to nipple and suckle to fuller development Most in Australia; opposum

46 Class: Mammalia - Placentals Viviparous Viviparous Young develop attached to mothers body via a placenta Young develop attached to mothers body via a placenta –Nutrient/waste exchange O 2, sugar –Surrounded by amnion Most common Most common


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