3About the novel… Genre – non-fiction, biography Setting – 1950s, Little Rock, ArkansasBrown v. Board of Education states that separate but equal is inherently unequal, granting 9 African-American students admission to an all white school, Central High.
4About the author…Melba Patillo Beals was born on December 7, 1941, in Little Rock, ArkansasAt the time that Beals was born, black and white people in many parts of America (especially the southern states) lived in a legally segregated society.Though they were better off than many other blacks in Arkansas, they were still subject to the same injustices as the rest of their community.
5About the author…Aside from her parents, the strongest influence in Beals's life was her grandma, India. India was deeply religious, and she taught Beals to look to the Bible for guidance. She also taught Beals to rely on God for strength, a lesson that would help her later when she became one of the first black students to enter Little Rock's all-white high school in the fall of 1957.
6In 1954, when Beals was twelve, the Supreme Court made a momentous decision in the lawsuit Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.Attorney Thurgood Marshall argued that segregation, the idea validated by the “separate but equal” finding in Plessy vs. Ferguson, was a violation of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.The 14th Amendment, passed after the abolition of slavery, stated that all citizens of the United States were guaranteed the same rights, including the same rights to public education and protection under the law.
7The Supreme Court found that segregation was indeed unconstitutional, and civil rights activists began to work toward integration and equal rights for white and black people. Their largest battle was the effort to integrate the schools in southern communities.Three years later, in Little Rock, Arkansas, nine black students were sent to the all-white Central High School to force integration. This group was known as the Little Rock Nine, and Beals was one of them.
8Beals spent one terrible year at Central High School, facing death threats, violence, and hatred. The governor of Arkansas at the time, Orval Faubus, sent troops to prevent the Little Rock Nine from entering the school. President Eisenhower decreed that Faubus was defying federal law and sent federal troops down to force the integration. Their battle continued throughout the school year.The next year, Faubus shut down the Little Rock schools so that he would not have to allow desegregation, and Beals was eventually sent to live with a family of white Quakers in California.
9About the novel…Point of view · The book is the story of Melba's teenage life, and the adult writer, Melba, is both the narrator and the protagonist. Melba tells the story from the first person point of view.
10Themes The shift of power due to resistance and opposition Remember, there is passive resistance and there is active resistance. Grandma India teaches passive, like Martin Luther King, Jr. Malcolm X taught active resistance.The prominence of race relations in societyReality turns children into adults
11SymbolsCentral High School – There is irony in the fact that an institution of education tries to promote or condone ignorance by denying African-Americans admission. It’s exterior is also described as prison-like, and it becomes a prison for Melba and her friends.
12SymbolsMelba's Easter Dress – the tradition of making the dress each year accentuates the pride that Melba's family takes in their clothing, their religion, and their lives. But in this particular year, Melba insists on an adult dress made of adult fabric. The dress symbolizes Melba's difficult passage from a high-school girl to an adult warrior for justice and is a reward for her work.