Presentation on theme: "Asian Migration Radiocarbon dating Ice Age Beringia Reasons for Migration Hunting Gradual migration, not all at once Die off of prey forced the nomads."— Presentation transcript:
Asian Migration Radiocarbon dating Ice Age Beringia Reasons for Migration Hunting Gradual migration, not all at once Die off of prey forced the nomads to look for other food sources (fish, shellfish, nuts, small game)
Four Theories (p.19) 1. Land Bridge (Beringia) 2. Northeast Asia along the shoreline Could more quickly reach South America 3. Pacific Crossing Theory Southeast Asia-Australia-Island Hopping (South America) 4. Atlantic Crossing Theory SW Europe-Iceland/Greenland-North America Other evidence suggests possible African migration
Early Civilizations of Mesoamerica Southern Mexico and Central America Agricultural Revolution 9-10,000 years ago Pumpkins, peppers, squash, gourds, beans Maize Flour (Bread), Long-term storage Shift to agriculture Abandon nomadic lifestyle New technologies Permanent villages, tools, pottery Government, specialized skills (civilization)
Olmec First civilization 1500-1200 B.C. – Veracruz, Mexico Large villages, temple complexes, pyramids, large monuments Lasted until 300 B.C. Ideas spread throughout the region Teotihuacan (Trade network)
Mayan Yucatan peninsula (200 A.D.) Engineering and mathematics Calendars, Pyramids Independent city-states (often fought each other) Disappeared around 900 A.D. Farmers exhausted soil-No food-Riots-Cities collapse Invaders from north Guatemalan Mayans lasted until 1500.
Toltec Master architects Gold and copper jewelry Fell to Mexica Aztec Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) Conquerors Controlled trade / shakedowns Human sacrifices
North American Cultures Hohokam 300 A.D. South Central Arizona Irrigation canals Corn, cotton, beans, squash Abandoned irrigation system in 1300 Competition for farmland – Wars / Emigration Died out by 1500
Anasazi 700-900 A.D. (Four Corners) Irrigation using basins and ditches Pueblos Built where streams converged Kivas Abandoned due to droughts Civilization died out due to epidemics / attacks
Adena and Hopewell Eastern woodlands of North America Woodworking tools (Canoes) Mounds Adena (Ohio Valley to New England) Hopewell Planted crops, more permanent settlement Geometric earthworks Decline after 400 A.D.
Mississippian 700-900 A.D. Fertile Mississippi River valley Maize and beans Cahokia Flat-topped pyramids and mounds Expanded into Alabama
Southwest Zuni, Hopi (Pueblo) Corn was key to survival Family Man joined wifes family Men – Farmers, herders, performed ceremonies, made clothes Women – Housework, made pottery, hauled water Worked together in construction and farming Kachina Boys joined at six Brought messages from gods Apache and Navajo arrive around 1500, adapted to culture.
Pacific Coast Tlingit, Haida, Kwakiutls, Nootkas, Chinook, Salish Not farmers, but permanent settlers Used lumber (Homes, canoes, art, masks, totem poles) Fisherman Inland (Rocky Mountains) Nez Perce, Yakima Fisherman, hunters, gatherers Ute and Shoshone Nomads (Too arid to farm) Central California Abundant wildlife and mild climate
Great Plains Pawnee, Kansas, Iowa, Sioux Influenced by Hopewell and Missisippian cultures Farmers until 1500, became Nomads (War / Drought) Followed the buffalo, lived in teepees Tamed horses for hunting and warfare Social status determined by bravery in battle
Far North Inuit, Aleut Hunters (Seals, Walruses, Whales, etc.) Learned to create devices to adapt to climate Lived in groups Single family to several hundred spaced miles apart
Eastern Woodlands Algonquian New England Wampanoag, Narragansett, Pequot, Powhatan (Virginia), Delaware, Shawnee (Ohio Valley) First to encounter English settlers Iroquoian New York, Canada Huron, Neutral, Erie, Wenro, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk Slash and Burn agriculture Longhouses Wigwams Wampum
Government Kinship Groups Women in positions of power Planting and harvesting of crops Iroquois League Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk tribes Founders – Dekanawidah and Hiawatha 50 Chiefs on council, selected by women in kinship groups. Appointed for life, but women could have them removed
Southeast Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Natchez Lived in towns arranged around a central plaza War Towns – Trained soldiers Peace Towns – Political leaders lived Women – Farmers Men – Hunters