2Section 1 – Migration to America Asian MigrationRadiocarbon datingIce AgeBeringiaReasons for MigrationHuntingGradual migration, not all at onceDie off of prey forced the nomads to look for other food sources (fish, shellfish, nuts, small game)
3Section 1 – Migration to America Four Theories (p.19)Land Bridge (Beringia)Northeast Asia along the shorelineCould more quickly reach South AmericaPacific Crossing TheorySoutheast Asia-Australia-Island Hopping (South America)Atlantic Crossing TheorySW Europe-Iceland/Greenland-North AmericaOther evidence suggests possible African migration
4Section 1 – Migration to America Early Civilizations of MesoamericaSouthern Mexico and Central AmericaAgricultural Revolution9-10,000 years agoPumpkins, peppers, squash, gourds, beansMaizeFlour (Bread), Long-term storageShift to agricultureAbandon nomadic lifestyleNew technologiesPermanent villages, tools, potteryGovernment, specialized skills (civilization)
5Section 1 – Migration to America OlmecFirst civilizationB.C. – Veracruz, MexicoLarge villages, temple complexes, pyramids, large monumentsLasted until 300 B.C.Ideas spread throughout the regionTeotihuacan (Trade network)
6Section 1 – Migration to America MayanYucatan peninsula (200 A.D.)Engineering and mathematicsCalendars, PyramidsIndependent city-states (often fought each other)Disappeared around 900 A.D.Farmers exhausted soil-No food-Riots-Cities collapseInvaders from northGuatemalan Mayans lasted until 1500.
7Section 1 – Migration to America ToltecMaster architectsGold and copper jewelryFell to MexicaAztecTenochtitlan (Mexico City)ConquerorsControlled trade / shakedownsHuman sacrifices
8Section 1 – Migration to America North American CulturesHohokam300 A.D.South Central ArizonaIrrigation canalsCorn, cotton, beans, squashAbandoned irrigation system in 1300Competition for farmland – Wars / EmigrationDied out by 1500
9Section 1 – Migration to America AnasaziA.D. (Four Corners)Irrigation using basins and ditchesPueblosBuilt where streams convergedKivasAbandoned due to droughtsCivilization died out due to epidemics / attacks
10Section 1 – Migration to America Adena and HopewellEastern woodlands of North AmericaWoodworking tools (Canoes)MoundsAdena (Ohio Valley to New England)HopewellPlanted crops, more permanent settlementGeometric earthworksDecline after 400 A.D.
11Section 1 – Migration to America MississippianA.D.Fertile Mississippi River valleyMaize and beansCahokiaFlat-topped pyramids and moundsExpanded into Alabama
12Section 2 – Native American Cultures SouthwestZuni, Hopi (Pueblo)Corn was key to survivalFamilyMan joined wife’s familyMen – Farmers, herders, performed ceremonies, made clothesWomen – Housework, made pottery, hauled waterWorked together in construction and farmingKachinaBoys joined at sixBrought messages from godsApache and Navajo arrive around 1500, adapted to culture.
13Section 2 – Native American Cultures Pacific CoastTlingit, Haida, Kwakiutls, Nootkas, Chinook, SalishNot farmers, but permanent settlersUsed lumber (Homes, canoes, art, masks, totem poles)FishermanInland (Rocky Mountains)Nez Perce, YakimaFisherman, hunters, gatherersUte and ShoshoneNomads (Too arid to farm)Central CaliforniaAbundant wildlife and mild climate
14Section 2 – Native American Cultures Great PlainsPawnee, Kansas, Iowa, SiouxInfluenced by Hopewell and Missisippian culturesFarmers until 1500, became Nomads (War / Drought)Followed the buffalo, lived in teepeesTamed horses for hunting and warfareSocial status determined by bravery in battle
15Section 2 – Native American Cultures Far NorthInuit, AleutHunters (Seals, Walruses, Whales, etc.)Learned to create devices to adapt to climateLived in groupsSingle family to several hundred spaced miles apart
16Section 2 – Native American Cultures Eastern WoodlandsAlgonquianNew EnglandWampanoag, Narragansett, Pequot, Powhatan (Virginia), Delaware, Shawnee (Ohio Valley)First to encounter English settlersIroquoianNew York, CanadaHuron, Neutral, Erie, Wenro, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, MohawkSlash and Burn agricultureLonghousesWigwamsWampum
17Section 2 – Native American Cultures GovernmentKinship GroupsWomen in positions of powerPlanting and harvesting of cropsIroquois LeagueSeneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk tribesFounders – Dekanawidah and Hiawatha50 Chiefs on council, selected by women in kinship groups. Appointed for life, but women could have them removed
18Section 2 – Native American Cultures SoutheastCherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, NatchezLived in towns arranged around a central plazaWar Towns – Trained soldiersPeace Towns – Political leaders livedWomen – FarmersMen – Hunters