Presentation on theme: "STOCK MARKET CRASH 1929. The Crash BEGINS Oct. 21, 1929- Stock market plunged, brokers made margin calls, customers put stocks up for sale Oct. 24 (Black."— Presentation transcript:
The Crash BEGINS Oct. 21, 1929- Stock market plunged, brokers made margin calls, customers put stocks up for sale Oct. 24 (Black Thursday)- Market plummeted further Oct. 29 (Black Tuesday)- Stock market took a deeper dive ($10-15 bil. drop in value)
Stock Market Crash (the cycle) 1. Stock values collapsed 2. Banks lost money on their investments 3. Speculators defaulted on their loans 4. Banks cut back on loans they made 5. Less credit available (money to borrow) 6. Banks didnt insure bank deposits 7. Customers lost their savings & banks collapsed 8. Economy went into a recession (economic slowdown)
Quote on the Depression The Great Depression began in 1929 when the entire world suffered an enormous drop in output and an unprecedented rise in unemployment. World economic output continued to decline until 1932 when it clinked bottom at 50% of its 1929 level. Unemployment soared, in the United States it peaked at 24.9% in 1933. It remained above 20% for two more years, reluctantly declining to 14.3% by 1937. It then leapt back to 19% before its long-term decline. Since most households had only one income earner the equivalent modern unemployment rates would likely be much higher. Real economic output (real GDP) fell by 29% from 1929 to 1933 and the US stock market lost 89.5% of its value.
Choices the banks had made Banks had lent money to stock speculators Many banks had invested depositors money in the stock market, hoping for higher returns
Disparity of income 2/3 of families earned less than $2,500 a year Top 5% of Americans earned 30% of the nations income
Wrong Decisions and Resulting Problems 1. Installment plan- customers make small down payment & the rest in monthly installments 2. Buyers paying off their debts forced them to reduce other purchases 3. Low consumption led manufacturers to cut production & lay off employees
Wrong Foreign Policy Decision Hawley-Smoot Tariff- raised import taxes & hoped to help American farmers. In response, foreign nations stopped purchasing American goods
Farming Economy Collapses Farmers mortgaged their land to pay for seed, feed, & equipment After WWI, prices sank so low, farmers couldnt even earn back their costs or make a profit Between 1930-1934, creditors foreclosed on nearly 1 million farms
Farming Economy Collapses Crop Prices Farmers destroyed their crops to raise crop prices by reducing the supply Dairy farmers poured milk out onto the roads to reduce the supply and raise prices Farmers dump milk
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