3Bear Market: A general decline in the stock market over a period of time. It is a transition from high investor optimism to widespread investor fear and pessimism.
4Bull Market: An increasing investor confidence, and increased investing in anticipation of future price increases
5Causes of the Depression High TariffsAvailability of Easy CreditOver ProductionUnequal Distribution of IncomeOver speculationCrisis in the farm sector
6High Tariffs Helped stifle world trade and hurt American businesses Prevented other countries from selling their goods in the USIt prevented them securing the dollars that they needed to buy American products.
7Availability of Easy Credit In the 1920s people bought luxury items on credit paid for through installment plans allowing people to live beyond their means.Business was expanding and the federal government failed to control bank loansPeople were buying stock that had no value
8Over ProductionMore goods were being produced than were selling (called stockpiling)Wages were rising more slowly than production and prices of goods.Credit concealed the fact that there was a decline in purchases.
9Unequal Distribution of Income If farmers had received better prices and workers had received higher wages the American people would have been able to purchase the surplus
10Over speculationStocks were no longer being bought and sold on the bases of their current valueThey were being bought on the assumption that they would go UP & UP!Buying on the Margin: Borrowing money to help pay for the stockSo if a stock declined people who had “bought on the margin” had no way to pay off the loan
11Crisis in the Farm Sector Farms were auctioned off when farmers could not pay their mortgages.Thousands of farmers lost their landHowever on plus on farms was farmers could grow food for their families unlike the cities
12Bank and Business Failure Not long after the stock market crashed millions of Americans who had never owned stocks were affected.Many people panicked and rushed the bank trying toMany banks began to close because they could not return depositors’ money
13Black Tuesday On October 29th 1929 The Bottom fell out of the market. Investors raced to sell their stocksThis signals the beginning of the GREAT DEPRESSION
14Hawley-Smoot TariffDesigned to protect American farmers but had the OPPOSITE effectThe tariff prevented other countries from earning American currency to buy American goods.Farmers could no longer export goods to Europe thereby making unemployment worse.
15Worldwide Shock WavesAs a result of the collapse of the American economic system it led to a worldwide depression.International trade slowed down as a result of the high protective tariffsEX: The Smoot-Hawley Tariff
16The Dust BowlPlowing had removed the thick protective layer of prairie grasses.Farmers exhausted the land through overproduction of crops.Areas that became known as the DUST BOWLKansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado
19During the Great Depression there was a drastic rise in the homeless: men who were laid off and lost their homes.Many became hobos: Men & Boys who rode the rails as they searched for workEvery day men would set out from home and walk the streets in search of jobs. Some became so discouraged they simply stopped trying, some even abandoned their families.
20Mental and Physical Results Many people were physically and mentally impacted.Their health declined as a result of poor diet and anxietyPeople were demoralized and lost their will to surviveThe Suicide rate rose more than 303 times as many people were admitted to state mental hospitals