Presentation on theme: "Embedded Operating Systems and Linux Bill Latura April 23, 2002."— Presentation transcript:
Embedded Operating Systems and Linux Bill Latura April 23, 2002
Agenda u What is an embedded Operating System u Who are the players u Linux as an embedded OS u Tools and development u Applications and products u The embedded OS market u Embedded OS Resources
OS Flavors u Desktop Windows (9X, XP Home, XP/2000 Pro) Mac u Server Windows (XP/2000 Server &Advanced Server) Unix Varieties u Embedded Many
What is an Embedded OS? u An "embedded system" is any computer system or computing device that performs a dedicated function or is designed for use with a specific embedded software application. u Embedded systems may use a ROM-based operating system or they may use a disk-based system, like a PC. But an embedded system is not usable as a commercially viable substitute for general purpose computers or devices.
What makes a good Embedded OS? u Modular u Scalable u Configurable u Small footprint u CPU support u Device drivers u etc, etc, etc...
What is Real Time? A real time system is one in which the correctness of the computations not only depends upon the logical correctness of the computation but also upon the time at which the result is produced. If the timing constraints of the system are not met, system failure is said to have occurred. - Donald Gillies
What is Real Time? Real time in operating systems: The ability of the operating system to provide a required level of service in a bounded response time. - POSIX Standard
Hard vs. Soft Real Time u Hard guaranteed worst-case response times absolutely, positively, first time every time u Soft Kinda, sorta, usually
What makes a good RTOS? u Multi-threaded and pre-emptible u Thread priority has to exist because no deadline driven OS exists u Must support predictable thread synchronization mechanisms u A system of priority inheritance must exist
Who are the Embedded OS players? u Wind River Systems VxWorks pSOS u QNX Software Systems QNX u Green Hills Software Integrity
Who are the Embedded OS players? u Mentor Graphics VRTX u Palm Computing PalmOS u Symbian SymbianOS
Microsoft u Embedded NT/XP Real-time control u Windows CE (CE.NET) Internet devices u Pocket PC 2002 Handheld PCs and PDAs
Commercial Embedded Linux u AMIRIX Embedded Linux derived from Debian u Coollogic Coollinux combines Linux and Java for Internet apps u Coventive Xlinux kernel can be as small as 143KB u Esfia RedBlue Linux 400K, designed for wireless apps
Commercial Embedded Linux u KYZO Pizza Box Linux SAMBA based file, print, CD server u Lineo Embedix supports real time and high availability apps u LynuxWorks BlueCat general purpose embedded solution u MontaVista Linux general purpose embedded solution
Commercial Embedded Linux u Neoware NeoLinux Red Hat derived for information appliances u PalmPalm Tynux Internet appliuance and multimedia u Red Hat Embedded Linux general purpose embedded solution u RedSonic Red-Ice Linux runs from DiskonChip or CompactFlash
Commercial Embedded Linux u RidgeRun DSP Linux for multimedia, wireless, RT on DSP u TimeSys Linux GPL low latency enhanced kernel u Tuxia TASTE distro targets Internet appliances u Vital Systems vLinux for ARM based embedded apps
Open Source Embedded Linux u Embedded Debian Project convert Debian to an embedded OS u ETLinux for PC104 SBCs u uCLinux for microprocessors that dont have MM u uLinux (muLinux) distro fits on a single floppy
Commercial Linux RTOS u FSMLabs - Open RT Linux u Lineo - Embedix Realtime u LynuxWorks - BlueCat RT u MontaVista Software - Real Time Extensions u REDSonic - REDICE Linux u TimeSys - Linux/Real-Time
Open Source Linux RTOS u ART Linux - real time extension based on RTLinux u KURT - event schedules with 10us resolution u Linux-SRT - for soft real time apps like multimedia u Qlinux - provides Quality of Service guarantees u RTAI - hard Real Time Application Interface
RTLinux u A hard real-time mini operating system u runs Linux as its lowest priority execution thread u Linux thread completely preemptible u Real time threads and interrupt handlers never delayed by non-realtime operations u Supports user level programming u MiniRTL implementation fits on a floppy
Whats so special about Linux? u Multiple choices vs. sole source u Source code freely available u Robust and reliable u Modular, configurable, scalable u Superb support for networking and Internet u No runtime licenses u Large pool of skilled developers
Whats so special about Linux?
Whats special about Open Source?
Flies in the Ointment u Lack of hardware device drivers u Competing and/or lacking standards u No formalized qualification testing u No single source for marketing u GPL license issues u Startup vendors with shaky futures
What CPUs will it run on? u Intel X86 u MIPS u ARM u StrongARM u PowerPC u Hitachi SuperH
Projected Target CPUs
Single Board Computers Little Board (5.75 x 8.0 in.) -- complete systems on a single compact board, expandable with plug-on function modules ISA "slot boards" (full-length, 13.8 x 4.8 in.; half-length, 7.1 x 4.8 in.) -- IBM PC plug-in cards which could function as standalone SBCs backplanes) PC/104 modules (3.6 x 3.8 in.) -- compact, rugged, self-stacking modules featuring a reliable pin-and-socket board-to-board expansion bus
Single Board Computers with PCI PC/104-Plus -- PCI added to PC/104 EBX -- PC/104-Plus added to Little Board
Any Development Tools Available? u QT/Embedded u Other GUI/Windowing toolkits u Arcom Control Systems u GNUPro Tools u Vendor specific u Standard Linux toolset
C or C++ for Development? u In general C is a better choice Advanced OOP features can cause code bloat C++ compilers can generate many routines for a single function Virtual methods and polymorphism slow program launch times significantly u Size really does matter
Whats It Being Used For? u Control and Monitoring Applications u Industrial Controllers u TV Set Top Boxes (TiVO) u Handheld PDAs u Automobile Computers u Telecomm and Networking Hardware u Myriad and sundry other uses...
Cyclades TS-100 u Netlinos OS u Dual 50MHz PowerPC u 16MB SDRAM 4MB Flash u Ethernet/Serial/RS485 u Size of a deck of cards
Sixnet VersaTRAK IPm u Embedded Linux u PowerPC CPU u 16MB DRAM 16MB Flash u Serial & Ethernet Ports u Linux and IEC1131 Programming/Modbus
Sharp Zaurus u Lineo Embedix u 206 MHz StrongARM u 64 MB DRAM 16MB Flash u 3.5 display (320x240) 64K colors u Opera browser & Qtopia u QT/Embedded GUI
Cell and Web Phones Telepong Mobile Phone GITWiT Mobile Phone Aplio/PRO IP Phone
TiVO Set Top Box u Home grown port of Embedded Linux u 54MHz PowerPC u Multi GB hard disk
Axis 2120 Network Camera u uCLinux u Built-in Ethernet port u 100 MHz ETRAX CPU u 16 MB RAM
Humanoid Robots u Isamu u Univ. of Tokyo/Kawanda Ind. u Dual Pentium CPU u RT-Linux u Height: 53 inches u Weight: 121 lbs.
Humanoid Robots u Fujitsu u RT-Linux u Height: 48 cm u Weight: 6 kg u 100 units/yr u HOAP
The Embedded OS Market 2001
The Embedded OS Market 2002
Growth of Embedded Linux
For Further Info Web Sites u LinuxDevices.com u Embedded Linux Consortium u All Linux Devices u Embedded Linux StarGate
For Further Info Web Sites/Magazines u Dr. Dobbs Embedded Systems u Embedded Linux Journal u Embedded Systems Programming