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ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.

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Presentation on theme: "ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by."— Presentation transcript:

1 ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PART A The Human Body: An Orientation

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Human Body – An Orientation Anatomy – study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology – study of how the body and its parts work or function

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anatomy – Levels of Study Gross Anatomy Large structures Easily observable

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 14.4 Anatomy – Levels of Study Microscopic Anatomy Very small structures Can only be viewed with a microscope

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.1 Levels of Structural Organization

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2a Organ System Overview Integumentary Forms the external body covering Protects deeper tissue from injury Synthesizes vitamin D Location of cutaneous nerve receptors

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2b Organ System Overview Skeletal Protects and supports body organs Provides muscle attachment for movement Site of blood cell formation Stores mineral

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2c Organ System Overview Muscular Allows locomotion Maintains posture Produces heat

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2d Organ System Overview Nervous Fast-acting control system Responds to internal and external change Activates muscles and glands

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2e Organ System Overview Endocrine Secretes regulatory hormones Growth Reproduction Metabolism

11 ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PART A The Human Body: An Orientation

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 1.2f Organ System Overview Cardiovascular Transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nutrients Wastes

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organ System Overview Lymphatic Returns fluids to blood vessels Disposes of debris Involved in immunity Figure 1.2g

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organ System Overview Respiratory Keeps blood supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Figure 1.2h

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organ System Overview Digestive Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material Figure 1.2i

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organ System Overview Urinary Eliminates nitrogenous wastes Maintains acid – base balance Regulates water and electrolytes Figure 1.2j

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organ System Overview Reproductive Production of offspring Figure 1.2k

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions Maintain Boundaries Movement Locomotion Movement of substances Responsiveness Ability to sense changes and react Digestion Break-down and delivery of nutrients

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions Metabolism – chemical reactions within the body Production of energy Making body structures Excretion Elimination of waste from metabolic reactions

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Necessary Life Functions Reproduction Production of future generation Growth Increasing of cell size and number

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Survival Needs Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals Oxygen Required for chemical reactions

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Survival Needs Water 60–80% of body weight Provides for metabolic reaction Stable body temperature Atmospheric pressure must be appropriate

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal environment = a dynamic state of equilibrium Homeostasis must be maintained for normal body functioning and to sustain life Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview of Homeostasis Figure 1.4

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintaining Homeostasis The body communicates through neural and hormonal control systems Receptor Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli) Sends information to control center

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Maintaining Homeostasis Control center Determines set point Analyzes information Determines appropriate response Effector Provides a means for response to the stimulus

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feedback Mechanisms Negative feedback Includes most homeostatic control mechanisms Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces its intensity Works like a household thermostat

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Feedback Mechanisms Positive feedback Increases the original stimulus to push the variable farther In the body this only occurs in blood clotting and birth of a baby

29 ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY PART A The Human Body: An Orientation

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Language of Anatomy Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding Exact terms are used for: Position Direction Regions Structures

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Orientation and Directional Terms Table 1.1 (cont)

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Landmarks Anterior Figure 1.5a

34 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Landmarks Posterior Figure 1.5b

35 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Planes Figure 1.6

36 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities Figure 1.7

37 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abdominopelvic Quadrants Figure 1.8a

38 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abdominopelvic Regions Figure 1.8b

39 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abdominopelvic Major Organs Figure 1.8c


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