Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 (Local Government). City Governments (13.1)"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 13 (Local Government)
City Governments (13.1)
City Governments All local governments are created by the state, with their powers and duties established in the state constitutions. They are not mentioned within the U.S. Constitution.
City Governments A municipality is defined as an incorporated place, or an area that is officially organized to provide services to its residents.
City Governments All incorporated areas begin by applying for a city charter, which acts like a cityconstitution. Each charter must be approved by the state. Home Rule allows cities to write their own charters to create their own governments.
Types of City Governments Charters usually create one of three kinds of governments: 1. Mayor-Council Form 2. Council-Manager Form 3. Commission Form
Mayor-Council Form In this form, power is divided between the mayor and city councils. Ordinances are the laws that are passed by this ruling body. This is the most common form.
Strong-Mayor vs. Weak-Mayor
Other Forms: In the Council- Manager form, the council and mayor make decisions jointly. These members are elected in at large elections. Usually hire an administrator to run the day to day operations.
Other Forms: In the Commission form, individualcommissioners are elected and serve as heads of departments. Within the group, a mayor is selected. The commission serves as both legislative AND executive branches.
Special Districts The most numerous of all local governments. Usually deal with specific issues: – Education – Water / Sewer – Transportation
Metropolitan Areas This form of government encompasses the city center and the surroundingsuburbs.
County Government (13.2)
County Governments A county is the largest subdivision of a state. Only Connecticut and Rhode Island do NOT have counties. Louisiana hasparishes and Alaska has boroughs
County Governments Most counties have a centrally located county courthouse, which serves as the center of government. The county seat is the town that contains this courthouse.
County Governments Despite the rising power of city governments, the county still controls many parts of government: – Elections – Hospitals – EMS – Waste Management
County Governments Most counties are governed by a board of commissioners. County Managers are often appointed to help run the day to day operations of the county government. County Executives are newly elected positions in some counties.
Other County Offices
Towns, Townships, & Villages (13.3)
Towns, Townships, & Villages Towns, townships, and villages are the smallest political units of local government. Like cities & counties, they get all of their power from the state.
Towns, Townships, & Villages In New England states,towns are the most common. Like cities & counties, they get all of their power from the state. Selectmen are often chosen to carry out the day to day business.
Towns, Townships, & Villages Town Meetings are common in these areas, with a simple majority decision. This is known as direct democracy. In more recent times, many have become morerepresentative (electing someone to speak for them)
Towns, Townships, & Villages In NY, NJ, PA, and other Midwestern areas,townships are still common. A township is a 6 mile by 6 mile block of land. Township Committees are selected to run these governments.
Towns, Townships, & Villages The village is the smallest form of local government. Usually created when residents want to control their own services. This usually results in higher taxes for the residents.