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Chapter 13 (“Local Government”)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 (“Local Government”)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 (“Local Government”)

2 City Governments (13.1)

3 City Governments All local governments are created by the state, with their powers and duties established in the state constitutions. They are not mentioned within the U.S. Constitution.

4 City Governments A “municipality” is defined as an incorporated place, or an area that is officially organized to provide services to its residents.

5 City Governments All incorporated areas begin by applying for a city charter, which acts like a city “constitution”. Each charter must be approved by the state. “Home Rule” allows cities to write their own charters to create their own governments.

6 City Services

7 Types of City Governments
Charters usually create one of three kinds of governments: Mayor-Council Form Council-Manager Form Commission Form

8 “Mayor-Council Form” In this form, power is divided between the mayor and city councils. “Ordinances” are the laws that are passed by this ruling body. This is the most common form.

9 “Strong-Mayor vs. Weak-Mayor”

10 Other Forms: In the “Council-Manager” form, the council and mayor make decisions jointly. These members are elected in “at large” elections. Usually hire an administrator to run the day to day operations.

11 Other Forms: In the “Commission” form, individual “commissioners” are elected and serve as heads of departments. Within the group, a mayor is selected. The commission serves as both legislative AND executive branches.

12 Special Districts The most numerous of all local governments.
Usually deal with specific issues: Education Water / Sewer Transportation

13 Metropolitan Areas This form of government encompasses the city center and the surrounding “suburbs”.

14 County Government (13.2)

15 County Governments A “county” is the largest subdivision of a state.
Only Connecticut and Rhode Island do NOT have counties. Louisiana has “parishes” and Alaska has “boroughs”

16 County Governments Most counties have a centrally located county courthouse, which serves as the center of government. The “county seat” is the town that contains this courthouse.

17 County Governments Despite the rising power of city governments, the county still controls many parts of government: Elections Hospitals EMS Waste Management

18 County Governments Most counties are governed by a board of commissioners. “County Managers” are often appointed to help run the day to day operations of the county government. “County Executives” are newly elected positions in some counties.

19 Other County Offices

20 Towns, Townships, & Villages (13.3)

21 Towns, Townships, & Villages
Towns, townships, and villages are the smallest political units of local government. Like cities & counties, they get all of their power from the state.

22 Towns, Townships, & Villages
In New England states, “towns” are the most common. Like cities & counties, they get all of their power from the state. “Selectmen” are often chosen to carry out the day to day business.

23 Towns, Townships, & Villages
“Town Meetings” are common in these areas, with a simple majority decision. This is known as “direct democracy”. In more recent times, many have become more “representative” (electing someone to speak for them)

24 Towns, Townships, & Villages
In NY, NJ, PA, and other Midwestern areas, “townships” are still common. A “township” is a 6 mile by 6 mile block of land. “Township Committees” are selected to run these governments.

25 Towns, Townships, & Villages
The “village” is the smallest form of local government. Usually created when residents want to control their own services. This usually results in higher taxes for the residents.

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