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American Government Chapter 24 Governing the States.

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Presentation on theme: "American Government Chapter 24 Governing the States."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Government Chapter 24 Governing the States

2 Section 1 State Constitutions 5 Main Categories by which all State constitutions can be described 5 Main Categories by which all State constitutions can be described 1. popular sovereignty & limited government 1. popular sovereignty & limited government 2. protections of civil rights 2. protections of civil rights 3. structure of state government 3. structure of state government 4. powers of the branches of State government 4. powers of the branches of State government 5. process of constitutional change 5. process of constitutional change

3 Amending the State constitutions Amendments can be proposed by: Amendments can be proposed by: 1. constitutional convention 1. constitutional convention 2. legislature 2. legislature 3. voters 3. voters Amendments can be ratified by: Amendments can be ratified by: A vote of the people A vote of the people

4 Statutory and Fundamental Law Statutory laws Statutory laws - laws passed by the legislature - laws passed by the legislature Fundamental laws Fundamental laws - laws of basic and lasting importance that should be in a constitution - laws of basic and lasting importance that should be in a constitution

5 Terms Popular Sovereignty Popular Sovereignty - The people are the sole source of the governments power - The people are the sole source of the governments power Limited Government Limited Government - Powers that the government has are limited - Powers that the government has are limited Initiative Initiative - process by which voters sign a petition favoring a proposal - process by which voters sign a petition favoring a proposal

6 Section 2 State Legislatures Formal qualifications for most states legislature Formal qualifications for most states legislature Age, citizenship, residence Age, citizenship, residence Usual term for State legislators Usual term for State legislators 2 or 4 years 2 or 4 years

7 The 8 most important legislative powers 1. tax 1. tax 2. spend 2. spend 3. borrow 3. borrow 4. police 4. police 5. establish courts 5. establish courts 6. define crimes and provide punishment 6. define crimes and provide punishment 7. regulate commercial activities 7. regulate commercial activities 8. maintain public schools 8. maintain public schools

8 Non- legislative functions of state legislatures 1. Approve Governors appointments 1. Approve Governors appointments 2. Impeachment 2. Impeachment 3. Constitution-making and amending 3. Constitution-making and amending

9 Committee System in State legislatures How does it work? How does it work? Laws are referred to committees for recommendation to full houses, similar to Congress Laws are referred to committees for recommendation to full houses, similar to Congress

10 Where do bills originate from? All kinds of public and private sources All kinds of public and private sources i.e. – MADD, SADD, etc. i.e. – MADD, SADD, etc.

11 Terms 1. Constituent Power 1. Constituent Power - constitution-making power - constitution-making power 2. Police Power 2. Police Power - States power to protect and promote public health, safety, morals, and welfare - States power to protect and promote public health, safety, morals, and welfare 3. Referendum 3. Referendum - Process by which a legislature sends bills to the electorate for approval - Process by which a legislature sends bills to the electorate for approval

12 Section 3 The Governor and State Administration Powers of The Governor Powers of The Governor Executive Executive 1. Appointment and removal of key assistants 1. Appointment and removal of key assistants 2. Supervise staffs of executive branch 2. Supervise staffs of executive branch 3. prepare and submit budget 3. prepare and submit budget 4. commander in chief of State National Guard 4. commander in chief of State National Guard

13 Legislative Legislative - 1. recommend legislation - 1. recommend legislation - 2. call special sessions of legislature - 2. call special sessions of legislature - 3. veto bills - 3. veto bills Judicial Judicial - 1. commute - 1. commute - 2. reprieve - 2. reprieve - 3. pardon - 3. pardon - 4. parole - 4. parole

14 Terms Reprieve Reprieve - to postpone a sentence - to postpone a sentence Pardon Pardon - Release a person of legal consequences of a crime - Release a person of legal consequences of a crime Parole Parole - Release a prisoner short of the completion of their sentence - Release a prisoner short of the completion of their sentence Commutation Commutation - to reduce a sentence - to reduce a sentence

15 Section 4 In the Courtroom Kinds of Laws in State Courts Kinds of Laws in State Courts 1. constitutional law 1. constitutional law - body of law based on the U.S. and state constitutions and judicial interpretations of them - body of law based on the U.S. and state constitutions and judicial interpretations of them 2. statutory law 2. statutory law - body of law based on statutes enacted by legislative bodies - body of law based on statutes enacted by legislative bodies

16 Kinds of Laws cont. 3. administrative law 3. administrative law - rules, orders, and regulations issued by executive branches of government - rules, orders, and regulations issued by executive branches of government 4. common law 4. common law - the unwritten, judge-made law that has developed over the centuries - the unwritten, judge-made law that has developed over the centuries 5. equity 5. equity - body of law that provides remedies for wrongs before they occur - body of law that provides remedies for wrongs before they occur

17 Criminal and Civil Law Two Kinds of Crimes Two Kinds of Crimes 1. felonies 1. felonies - serious crimes - serious crimes 2. misdemeanors 2. misdemeanors - lesser offenses - lesser offenses What is civil law? What is civil law? Disputes between individuals and between individuals and governments Disputes between individuals and between individuals and governments

18 Jury System What does a grand jury do? What does a grand jury do? They determine whether the facts of a case warrant bringing a criminal case to trial They determine whether the facts of a case warrant bringing a criminal case to trial How have petit juries changed over the years? How have petit juries changed over the years? They used to be all men (12) They used to be all men (12) Now they are men & women and may only be 6 in number Now they are men & women and may only be 6 in number How are petit jury members chosen? How are petit jury members chosen? They are selected from various lists of citizens in a community They are selected from various lists of citizens in a community

19 Precedents & Common Law What is a precedent and what part does it play in common law? What is a precedent and what part does it play in common law? Following precedent is abiding by earlier court decisions as they have been handed down over the years by judges Following precedent is abiding by earlier court decisions as they have been handed down over the years by judges Precedents create a body of law known as common law Precedents create a body of law known as common law


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