3 Materials For Plant Processes To survive, plants need food, water, and oxygen.Roots absorb water which travels inside xylem cells to all parts of a plant.Most plants make their own food (Glucose) which flows to all plant cells.Plants require oxygen and carbon dioxide to make food.
4 PHOTOSYNTHESISPhotosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions that converts light energy into chemical energy (Glucose)
5 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Leaves are the major- food producing organs of plants. The cells that make up the top layer of a leaf are flat, irregularly shaped cells called epidermal cells.On the bottom of the epidermal layer of leaves are small openings called stomata.
6 PHOTOSYNTHESISMesophyll cells contain chloroplasts, the organelle where photosynthesis occurs.Chemicals that can absorb and reflect light are called pigments.The pigment chlorophyll reflects green light, absorbs other colors of light, and uses this energy for photosynthesis.
7 PHOTOSYNTHESISDuring photosynthesis, water molecules are split apart releasing oxygen into the atmosphere.Sugars are made in the second step of photosynthesis.Photosynthesis is important because it produces most of the oxygen in the atmosphere
8 CELLULAR RESPIRATIONCellular Respiration – converts the energy in food molecules into a usable form of energy called ATP
9 CELLULAR RESPIRATIONOccurs in the mitochondria of Eukaryotic cells and requires oxygenGlucose broken downLarge amounts of usable energy called ATP are producedWater and Carbon Dioxide is given off
13 Stimuli are any changes in the environment that cause an organism to react. Plants respond to different environmental stimuli such as:lighttouchgravityA tropism is a response that results in plant growth toward or away from a stimulus.
14 Phototropism Tendency of plants to grow toward a source of light Leaves and stems tend to grow in the direction of lightRoots grow away from light
16 Gravitropism Response of a plant to the force of gravity Stems grow away from gravityRoots grow toward gravity
17 PhotoperiodismResponse to the number of hours of darkness in its environment.Long-day plants- flower when exposed to less than hours of darknessShort-day plants- require 12 or more hours of darkness for flowering to beginDay-neutral plants- flower when they reach maturity and the environmental conditions are right.
18 Hormone Substances that act as chemical messengers. They are produced in one part of an organism and affects another part of the same organism
19 AuxinHormone that caused increased plant growth.
20 EthylenePlant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
21 GibberellinHormone that increases the rate of cell division and cell elongation in stems and leaves and fruit.
22 CytokininPlant hormone that increases the rate of cell division in some plants and slow the aging process of flowers and fruitsCauses dormant seeds to sprout