3Developing Through the Life Span Prenatal Development and the NewbornConceptionPrenatal DevelopmentThe Competent NewbornInfancy and ChildhoodPhysical DevelopmentCognitive Development
4Developing Through the Life Span AdolescencePhysical DevelopmentCognitive DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentEmerging AdulthoodAdulthood
5Developing Through the Life Span Adulthood (continued)Cognitive DevelopmentSocial DevelopmentReflections on Two Major Developmental IssuesContinuity and StagesStability and Change
6Developmental Psychologists Study the physical, cognitive and social changes throughout the lifespan.IssueDetailsNature/NurtureHow do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior?Continuity/StagesIs developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages?Stability/ChangeDo our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.OBJECTIVE 1| State the three areas of change that developmental psychologists study, and identify the three major issues in developmental psychology.
7Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.
8ConceptionA single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyOBJECTIVE 2| Describe the union of sperm and egg at conception.
9Prenatal DevelopmentA zygote is a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo (a and b).Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyBiophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc.OBJECTIVE 3| Define zygote, embryo and fetus, and explain how teratogens can affect development.
10Prenatal DevelopmentAt 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus (c and d). Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus, causing physical and cognitive abnormalities. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an example of teratogen poisoning.Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing CompanyLennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company
11The Competent NewbornInfants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, including rooting reflex which helps them locate food, by directing the baby to turn toward a touch on the cheek, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.OBJECTIVE 4| Describe some of the abilities of the newborn, and explain how researchers use habituation to assess infant sensory and cognitive abilities.
12The Competent NewbornOffspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved.Lightscapes, Inc. CorbisCarl and Ann Purcell/ Corbis
13Cognitive Development in the Newborn Investigators study habituation, which is, a decreasing responsiveness to objects over a period of time. Infants pay more attention to new objects than habituated ones, which shows they are learning.
14Infancy and ChildhoodInfancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially.StageSpanInfancyNewborn to toddlerChildhoodToddler to teenager
15Physical DevelopmentInfants’ psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain.
16Developing BrainThe developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned (use it or lose it) to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual to think rationally.OBJECTIVE 5| Describe some developmental changes in the child’s brain, and explain why maturation accounts for many of our similarities.
17MaturationThe development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation (biological growth and changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience).Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.
18Motor DevelopmentFirst, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence.Jim Craigmyle/ CorbisRenee Altier for Worth PublishersPhototake Inc./ Alamy ImagesProfimedia.CZ s.r.o./ AlamyOBJECTIVE 6| Outline four events in the motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.
19Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years.OBJECTIVE 7| Explain why we have few memories of experiences during our first three years of life.Amy PedersenCourtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier
20Cognitive Development Jean Piaget, the Swiss developmental psychologists believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make.OBJECTIVE 8| State Piaget’s understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache
21Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
22Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves trying to interpret new experiences into our current understanding (existing schemas). So a child may incorrectly call a cow, “doggie.”The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation. Mommy corrects the child, and he now has a new schema (cow).Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc.Jean Piaget with a subject
23Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking Cognition – Thinking, knowing, remembering, understanding, and communicatingOBJECTIVE 9| Outline Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children’s thinking changes during these four stages.
24Sensorimotor StageIn the sensorimotor stage (birth – about 2) babies take in the world, using the senses (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) and motor skills to learn. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight still exist.Doug Goodman
25Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas.However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count.Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.
26Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.
27Ontario Science Center Preoperational StagePiaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage, able to use symbols, but too young to perform mental operations or think logically. When they can grasp conservation (objects retain their mass, volume and number regardless of the shape of the container) the child leaves the preoperational stageOntario Science Center
28Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.
29EgocentrismPiaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.While speaking on the telephone, young children often do not say, “yes/no” in response to query from the other side, but just nod their heads. They feel that the other person should be able to see them. Also, they usually have created a mental image of the other person and feel that he or she looks the way they have imagined.
30Peoples’ ideas about their own and others’ mental states. Theory of MindPeoples’ ideas about their own and others’ mental states.Autism is characterized by deficient communication, social interaction, and impaired theory of mind. Asperger’s Syndrome is often characterized by exceptional skill or talent in a specific area, but deficient social and communication skills
31Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a trans-formation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable.Another example might be a child who is able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a dog, and that a dog is an animal.
32Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.
33Criticisms of Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982).If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?
34Reflecting on Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. However, today’s researchers believe the following:Development is a continuous process.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss psychologists’ current views on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.
36AttachmentThe central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant's needs establish a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.OBJECTIVE 13| Contrast secure and insecure attachment, and discuss the roles of parents and infants in the development of attachment and an infant’s feelings of basic trust.
37Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Origins of AttachmentHarry & Margaret Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment.OBJECTIVE 12| Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment.Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
38Other Causes of Attachment A critical period - an optimum period shortly after birth when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development – allows familiarity to form attachment. In some animals imprinting (forming attachments in the critical period) happens when the animals see a parent shortly after birth. Researcher, Konrad Lorenz, studied whether ducklings would imprint on him, if he was the first moving object they saw after birth. They did.Konrad Lorenz
39Secure AttachmentRelaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment. Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachmentBerry Hewlett
40Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin Insecure AttachmentHarlow’s studies showed that monkeys experience great anxiety if their terry-cloth mother is removed. Insecure attachment can lead to anxiety, and other disorders.Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
41Erik EricsonDevelopmental researcher, who categorized the Stages for Psycho-Social Development, said that securely attached children approach life with basic trust – a sense that the world is predictable and reliable.
42Attachment Differences: Why? Why do these attachment differences exist?FactorExplanationMotherBoth rat pups and human infants develop secure attachments if the mother is relaxed and attentive.FatherIn many cultures where fathers share the responsibility of raising children, similar secure attachments develop.
43Separation AnxietySeparation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.
44Deprivation of Attachment What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments?In such circumstances children become:WithdrawnFrightenedUnable to develop speechOBJECTIVE 14| Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.
45Disruption of Attachment If parental or caregiving support is disrupted for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels.
46Day Care and Attachment Quality day care that consists of responsive adults interacting with children does not harm children’s thinking and language skills.However, some studies suggest that extensive time in day care can increase aggressiveness and defiance in children.
47Self-ConceptSelf-concept, a sense of one’s identity and personal worth, emerges gradually around 6 months. Around months, children can recognize themselves in the mirror. By 8-10 years, their self-image is stable.OBJECTIVE 15| Assess the impact of parental neglect, family disruption, and day care on attachment patterns and development.Laura Dwight
48Child-Rearing Practices DescriptionAuthoritarianParents impose rules and expect obedience. “It’s my way or the highway. My house, my rules”PermissiveParents submit to children’s demands. “Whatever you want dear.”AuthoritativeParents are demanding but responsive to their children. “No, you can’t have that, and here’s why.”Neglectful/AbsentThe parent is not around.“ “OBJECTIVE 16| Describe three parenting styles, and offer three potential explanations for the link between authoritative parenting and social competence.
49Authoritative Parenting Authoritative parenting correlates with social competence — other factors like common genes may lead to an easy-going temperament and may invoke an authoritative parenting style.
50AdolescenceMany psychologists once believed that our traits were set during childhood. Today psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process. Adolescence is defined as a life between childhood (approx. 13) and adulthood (approx. 20).OBJECTIVE 17| Define adolescence.AP Photo/ Jeff Chiu
51Physical DevelopmentAdolescence begins with puberty (sexual maturation). Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). Thus height in females increases before males.OBJECTIVE 18| Identify the major physical changes during adolescence.
52Primary Sexual Characteristics During puberty primary sexual characteristics — the reproductive organs and external genitalia — develop rapidly.Ellen Senisi/ The Image Works
53Secondary Sexual Characteristics The non-reproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls, and facial hair and deepening of voice in boys develop. Pubic hair and armpit hair grow in both sexes. Menarche is the onset of menstruation in women, while spermarche is the beginning of sperm production in men.
54The Adolescent BrainUntil puberty, neurons increase their connections. However, at adolescence, selective pruning of the neurons begins. Unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more efficient.
55Pre-Frontal CortexDuring adolescence, neurons in the frontal cortex grow myelin, which speeds up nerve conduction. The frontal cortex lags behind the limbic system’s development. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness.
56Cognitive Development Adolescents’ ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness. In particular, they may think about the following:Their own thinking.What others are thinking.What others are thinking about them.How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves.
57Developing Reasoning Power According to Piaget, adolescents can handle abstract problems, i.e., they can perform formal operations. Adolescents can judge good from evil, truth and justice, and think about God in deeper terms.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the changes in reasoning abilities that Piaget called formal operations.William Thomas Cain/ Getty ImagesAP/Wide World Photos
58Developing MoralityLawrence Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as “Should a person steal medicine to save a loved one’s life?” He found stages of moral development.OBJECTIVE 20| Discuss moral development from the perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling, and moral action.AP Photo/ Dave Martin
59Moral ThinkingPreconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward.Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake.Postconventional Morality: Affirms people’s agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles.(like the movie, John Q)
60Moral FeelingJonathon Haidt’s, social institutionalist theory is the concept that - moral feelings precede moral action. It’s a gut instinct, or quick cognitive process which then triggers moral reasoning and influences you into action.Like commercials for saving abandoned/abused animals. You see the ad, you feel awful, you send in some $.
61Erik EriksonDevelopmental researcher who formulated the, Stages of Psychosocial Development. Erikson contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs to be resolved.
62Social DevelopmentOBJECTIVE 21| Identify Erickson’s eight stages of psychosocial development and their accompanying issues.
63Forming an IdentityThe sense of self. Erikson said that the task of adolescence is to solidify the sense of self. In Western cultures, many adolescents try out different selves before settling into a consistent and comfortable identity.OBJECTIVE 22| Explain how search for identity affects us during adolescence, and discuss how forming an identity prepares us for intimacy.Leland Bobble/ Getty ImagesMatthias Clamer/ Getty Images
64Parent and Peer Influence Although teens become independent of their parents as they grow older, they nevertheless relate to their parents on a number of things, including religiosity and career choices. Peer approval and relationships are also very important. Erikson stated that intimacy, the ability to form close, loving relationships, is the task of young adulthood that must be conquered.OBJECTIVE 23| Contrast parental and peer influences during adolescence.
65Delayed (Emerging) Adulthood Emerging adulthood spans ages During this time, young adults may live with their parents and attend college or work. On average, emerging adult women marry in their mid-twenties, and men in their later 20’s.OBJECTIVE 24| Discuss the characteristics of emerging adulthood.Ariel Skelley/ Corbis
66AdulthoodAlthough adulthood begins sometime after a person’s mid-twenties, defining adulthood into stages is more difficult than defining stages during childhood or adolescence. Development continues throughout our adult livesRick Doyle/ Corbis
67Middle Adulthood Physical Development The peak of physical performance occurs around 20 years of age, after which it declines imperceptibly for most of us. Physical decline gradually accelerates the more we age, although physical vigor has more to do with how fit you are, regardless of how old you are.
68Middle Adulthood (con’t) Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid-twenties. Around age 50, women go through menopause, the biological changes that women experience, including the cessation of menstruation, as their ability to reproduce declines. Men also experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility.OBJECTIVE 25| Identify major physical changes that occur in middle adulthood.Bettman/ Corbis
69Old Age: Life Expectancy Life expectancy at birth increased from 49% in 1950 to 67% in 2004 and to 80% in developed countries. Women outlive men and outnumber them at most ages. Currently women live to an average age of 80.5 years, and men, 75.5 years.OBJECTIVE 26| Compare life expectancy in the mid-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and discuss changes in sensory abilities and health (including frequency of dementia) in older adults.Gorges Gobet/ AP Photo
70Old Age: Sensory Abilities After age 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks.Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
71Old Age: Motor Abilities and Health At age 70, our motor abilities also decline. A 70-year-old is no match for a 20-year-old individual. Fatal accidents also increase around this age.As for health, a lifetime of antibodies make the elderly less susceptible to the common flu and colds. However, the weakened immune system means they are more likely to contract pneumonia and cancer.
72Old Age: DementiaWith increasing age, the risk of dementia also increases. Dementia is not a normal part of growing old.Alan Oddie/ PhotoEdit
73Old Age: Alzheimer’s and Dementia Dementia is any degenerative brain disease, that typically involves a loss of cognitive abilities. Alzheimer’s is a form of dementia. Individuals who are in the early stages of this disease show more MRI activity in the brain than do normal individuals of the same age.Susan Bookheimer
74Cognitive Development Do cognitive abilities like memory, creativity, and intelligence decline with age the same way physical abilities do?
75Aging and MemoryAs we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names becomes increasingly difficult. We remember things that have meaning to us, or an emotional connectionOBJECTIVE 27| Assess the impact of aging on recall and recognition in adulthood.
76Aging and MemoryRecognition memory does not decline with age, and material that is meaningful is recalled better than meaningless material. The same is true for prospective memory, the memories that involve skills or tasks that have been rehearsed and practiced.David Myers
77Aging and Intelligence Cross-Sectional studies (comparing people of different ages against one another) suggest a decline in intelligence, but Longitudinal studies (studying the same people over time) suggest that intelligence remains relative as we age. It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystallized intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) does not.OBJECTIVE 28| Summarize the contribution of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to our understanding of the normal effects of aging on adult intelligence.
78Aging and Other Abilities A number of cognitive abilities decline with age. However, vocabulary and general knowledge increase with age. As does social intelligence (common sense and/or worldly knowledge).
79Social DevelopmentMany differences between the young and old are not simply based on physical and cognitive abilities, but may instead be based on life events associated with family, relationships, and work.
80Adulthood’s Ages and Stages Psychologists doubt that adults pass through an orderly sequence of age-bound stages. Mid-life transitions (a desire to recapture some of the freedom of youth and single-life) at 40 are less likely to occur than crises triggered by major events (divorce, new marriage).OBJECTIVE 29| Explain why the path of adult development need not be tightly linked to one’s chronological age.
81The Social ClockSociety has memes and norms that establish commonly accepted times for certain life events.Natural disasters, family rearrangement (divorce), change of job, or any other event that causes mass disruption in the normal flow of life’s progression, can delay the social clock.
82Life Events and Chance Encounters Marriage, parenthood, job and career changes, divorce, nest emptying, relocation and retirement mark new life stage transitions regardless of when they occur. Chance events can have lasting significance because they often deflect us down one road instead of another.Love, as a developmental issue, may assist or hinder normal psychosocial development. Work responsibilities, or a lack of a job, could also have a profound effect on traditional development.OBJECTIVE 30| Discuss the importance of love, marriage, and children in adulthood, and comment on the contribution of one’s feelings of self-satisfaction.
83Well-Being Across the Life Span Well-being and people’s feelings of satisfaction are stable across the life span.OBJECTIVE 31| Describe trends in people’s life satisfaction across the life span.
84Chris Steele-Perkins/ Magnum Photos Death and DyingThere is no “normal” reaction or series of grief stages after the death of a loved one. Grief is more sudden if death occurs unexpectedly. People who reach a sense of integrity in life (in Erikson’s terms) see life as meaningful and worthwhile.Chris Steele-Perkins/ Magnum PhotosOBJECTIVE 32| Describe the range of reactions to the death of a loved one.
85Developmental Issues Continuity and Stages Researchers who view development as a slow, continuous process are generally those who emphasize experience and learning (Nurture). Biologists, on the other hand, view maturation and development as a series of genetically predisposed steps or stages. These include psychologists like Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson.OBJECTIVE 33| Summarize current views on continuity versus stages and stability versus change in lifelong development.
86Stability vrs. Change Researchers who have followed lives through time have found evidence for both stability and change. There is continuity to personality, and yet life is a continuing process. The struggles of today lay the foundation for tomorrow.