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1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, © 2006

2 2 Developing Through the Life Span Chapter 4

3 3 Developing Through the Life Span Prenatal Development and the Newborn Conception Prenatal Development The Competent Newborn Infancy and Childhood Physical Development Cognitive Development

4 4 Developing Through the Life Span Adolescence Physical Development Cognitive Development Social Development Emerging Adulthood Adulthood Physical Development

5 5 Developing Through the Life Span Adulthood (continued) Cognitive Development Social Development Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues Continuity and Stages Stability and Change

6 6 Developmental Psychologists Study the physical, cognitive and social changes throughout the lifespan. IssueDetails Nature/Nurture How do genetic inheritance (our nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior? Continuity/Stages Is developmental a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages? Stability/Change Do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age.

7 7 Prenatal Development and the Newborn How, over time, did we come to be who we are? From zygote to birth, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence.

8 8 Conception A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuses to form one fertilized cell. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company

9 9 Prenatal Development A zygote is a fertilized egg with 100 cells that become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo (a and b). Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company Biophoto Associates/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

10 10 Prenatal Development At 9 weeks, an embryo turns into a fetus (c and d). Teratogens are chemicals or viruses that can enter the placenta and harm the developing fetus, causing physical and cognitive abnormalities. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an example of teratogen poisoning. Lennart Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers Publishing Company

11 11 The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reflexes that aid in survival, including rooting reflex which helps them locate food, by directing the baby to turn toward a touch on the cheek, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.

12 12 The Competent Newborn Offspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved. Carl and Ann Purcell/ CorbisLightscapes, Inc. Corbis

13 13 Cognitive Development in the Newborn Investigators study habituation, which is, a decreasing responsiveness to objects over a period of time. Infants pay more attention to new objects than habituated ones, which shows they are learning.

14 14 Infancy and Childhood Infancy and childhood span from birth to the teenage years. During these years, the individual grows physically, cognitively, and socially. StageSpan Infancy Newborn to toddler Childhood Toddler to teenager

15 15 Physical Development Infants psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain.

16 16 Developing Brain The developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned (use it or lose it) to 23 billion at birth. The greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual to think rationally.

17 17 Maturation The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence standing before walking, babbling before talkingthis is called maturation (biological growth and changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience). Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it.

18 18 Motor Development First, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence. Renee Altier for Worth Publishers Jim Craigmyle/ Corbis Phototake Inc./ Alamy Images Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./ Alamy

19 19 Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5-year-old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is different from 3-4 years. Amy Pedersen Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier

20 20 Cognitive Development Jean Piaget, the Swiss developmental psychologists believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make. Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache

21 21 Schemas Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.

22 22 Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves trying to interpret new experiences into our current understanding (existing schemas). So a child may incorrectly call a cow, doggie. The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation. Mommy corrects the child, and he now has a new schema (cow). Jean Piaget with a subject Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

23 23 Piagets Theory and Current Thinking Cognition – Thinking, knowing, remembering, understanding, and communicating

24 24 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage (birth – about 2) babies take in the world, using the senses (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping) and motor skills to learn. Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence, i.e., objects that are out of sight still exist. Doug Goodman

25 25 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas. However, recent research shows that children in the sensorimotor stage can think and count. 1.Children understand the basic laws of physics. They are amazed at how a ball can stop in midair or disappear.

26 26 Sensorimotor Stage: Criticisms 2. Children can also count. Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones.

27 27 Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6-7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage, able to use symbols, but too young to perform mental operations or think logically. When they can grasp conservation (objects retain their mass, volume and number regardless of the shape of the container) the child leaves the preoperational stage Ontario Science Center

28 28 Preoperational Stage: Criticism DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dogs hiding place behind the couch, a 2½-year-old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3-year-old did.

29 29 Egocentrism Piaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from anothers point of view. While speaking on the telephone, young children often do not say, yes/no in response to query from the other side, but just nod their heads. They feel that the other person should be able to see them. Also, they usually have created a mental image of the other person and feel that he or she looks the way they have imagined.

30 30 Theory of Mind Peoples ideas about their own and others mental states. Autism is characterized by deficient communication, social interaction, and impaired theory of mind. Aspergers Syndrome is often characterized by exceptional skill or talent in a specific area, but deficient social and communication skills

31 31 Concrete Operational Stage In concrete operational stage, 6- to 7-year-olds grasp mathematical functions. So, if = 12, then a trans-formation, 12 – 4 = 8, is also easily doable. Another example might be a child who is able to recognize that his or her dog is a Labrador, that a Labrador is a dog, and that a dog is an animal.

32 32 Formal Operational Stage Around age 12, our reasoning ability expands from concrete thinking to abstract thinking. We can now use symbols and imagined realities to systematically reason. Piaget called this formal operational thinking.

33 33 Criticisms of Piagets Formal Operational Stage Rudiments of such thinking begin earlier (age 7) than what Piaget suggested, since 7-year-olds can solve the problem below (Suppes, 1982). If John is in school, Mary is in school. John is in school. What can you say about Mary?

34 34 Reflecting on Piagets Theory Piagets stage theory has been influential globally, validating a number of ideas regarding growth and development in many cultures and societies. However, todays researchers believe the following: 1.Development is a continuous process. 2.Children express their mental abilities and operations at an earlier age. 3.Formal logic is a smaller part of cognition.

35 35 Social Development Stranger anxiety is the fear of strangers that develops at around 8 months. This is the age at which infants form schemas for familiar faces and cannot assimilate a new face. © Christina Kennedy/ PhotoEdit

36 36 Attachment The central theme of attachment theory is that mothers who are available and responsive to their infant's needs establish a sense of security. The infant knows that the caregiver is dependable, which creates a secure base for the child to then explore the world.

37 37 Origins of Attachment Harry & Margaret Harlow (1971) showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not because of nourishment. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin

38 38 Other Causes of Attachment A critical period - an optimum period shortly after birth when certain events must take place to facilitate proper development – allows familiarity to form attachment. In some animals imprinting (forming attachments in the critical period) happens when the animals see a parent shortly after birth. Researcher, Konrad Lorenz, studied whether ducklings would imprint on him, if he was the first moving object they saw after birth. They did. Konrad Lorenz

39 39 Secure Attachment Relaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment. Placed in a strange situation, 60% of children express secure attachment Berry Hewlett

40 40 Insecure Attachment Harlows studies showed that monkeys experience great anxiety if their terry-cloth mother is removed. Insecure attachment can lead to anxiety, and other disorders. Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin

41 41 Erik Ericson Developmental researcher, who categorized the Stages for Psycho-Social Development, said that securely attached children approach life with basic trust – a sense that the world is predictable and reliable.

42 42 Attachment Differences: Why? Why do these attachment differences exist? FactorExplanation Mother Both rat pups and human infants develop secure attachments if the mother is relaxed and attentive. Father In many cultures where fathers share the responsibility of raising children, similar secure attachments develop.

43 43 Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety peaks at 13 months of age, regardless of whether the children are home or sent to day care.

44 44 Deprivation of Attachment What happens when circumstances prevent a child from forming attachments? In such circumstances children become: 1.Withdrawn 2.Frightened 3.Unable to develop speech

45 45 Disruption of Attachment If parental or caregiving support is disrupted for an extended period of time, children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in brain serotonin levels.

46 46 Day Care and Attachment Quality day care that consists of responsive adults interacting with children does not harm childrens thinking and language skills. However, some studies suggest that extensive time in day care can increase aggressiveness and defiance in children.

47 47 Self-Concept Self-concept, a sense of ones identity and personal worth, emerges gradually around 6 months. Around months, children can recognize themselves in the mirror. By 8-10 years, their self- image is stable. Laura Dwight

48 48 Child-Rearing Practices PracticeDescription Authoritarian Parents impose rules and expect obedience. Its my way or the highway. My house, my rules Permissive Parents submit to childrens demands. Whatever you want dear. Authoritative Parents are demanding but responsive to their children. No, you cant have that, and heres why. Neglectful/ Absent The parent is not around.

49 49 Authoritative Parenting Authoritative parenting correlates with social competence other factors like common genes may lead to an easy-going temperament and may invoke an authoritative parenting style.

50 50 Adolescence Many psychologists once believed that our traits were set during childhood. Today psychologists believe that development is a lifelong process. Adolescence is defined as a life between childhood (approx. 13) and adulthood (approx. 20). AP Photo/ Jeff Chiu

51 51 Physical Development Adolescence begins with puberty (sexual maturation). Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). Thus height in females increases before males.

52 52 Primary Sexual Characteristics During puberty primary sexual characteristics the reproductive organs and external genitalia develop rapidly. Ellen Senisi/ The Image Works

53 53 Secondary Sexual Characteristics The non-reproductive traits such as breasts and hips in girls, and facial hair and deepening of voice in boys develop. Pubic hair and armpit hair grow in both sexes. Menarche is the onset of menstruation in women, while spermarche is the beginning of sperm production in men.

54 54 The Adolescent Brain Until puberty, neurons increase their connections. However, at adolescence, selective pruning of the neurons begins. Unused neuronal connections are lost to make other pathways more efficient.

55 55 Pre-Frontal Cortex During adolescence, neurons in the frontal cortex grow myelin, which speeds up nerve conduction. The frontal cortex lags behind the limbic systems development. Hormonal surges and the limbic system may explain occasional teen impulsiveness.

56 56 Cognitive Development Adolescents ability to reason gives them a new level of social awareness. In particular, they may think about the following: 1.Their own thinking. 2.What others are thinking. 3.What others are thinking about them. 4.How ideals can be reached. They criticize society, parents, and even themselves.

57 57 Developing Reasoning Power According to Piaget, adolescents can handle abstract problems, i.e., they can perform formal operations. Adolescents can judge good from evil, truth and justice, and think about God in deeper terms. William Thomas Cain/ Getty Images AP/Wide World Photos

58 58 Developing Morality Lawrence Kohlberg (1981, 1984) sought to describe the development of moral reasoning by posing moral dilemmas to children and adolescents, such as Should a person steal medicine to save a loved ones life? He found stages of moral development. AP Photo/ Dave Martin

59 59 Moral Thinking 1.Preconventional Morality: Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward. 2.Conventional Morality: By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake. 3.Postconventional Morality: Affirms peoples agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles. (like the movie, John Q)

60 60 Moral Feeling Jonathon Haidts, social institutionalist theory is the concept that - moral feelings precede moral action. Its a gut instinct, or quick cognitive process which then triggers moral reasoning and influences you into action. Like commercials for saving abandoned/abused animals. You see the ad, you feel awful, you send in some $.

61 61 Erik Erikson Developmental researcher who formulated the, Stages of Psychosocial Development. Erikson contended that each stage of life has its own psychosocial task, a crisis that needs to be resolved.

62 62 Social Development

63 63 Forming an Identity The sense of self. Erikson said that the task of adolescence is to solidify the sense of self. In Western cultures, many adolescents try out different selves before settling into a consistent and comfortable identity. Leland Bobble/ Getty Images Matthias Clamer/ Getty Images

64 64 Parent and Peer Influence Although teens become independent of their parents as they grow older, they nevertheless relate to their parents on a number of things, including religiosity and career choices. Peer approval and relationships are also very important. Erikson stated that intimacy, the ability to form close, loving relationships, is the task of young adulthood that must be conquered.

65 65 Delayed (Emerging) Adulthood Emerging adulthood spans ages During this time, young adults may live with their parents and attend college or work. On average, emerging adult women marry in their mid-twenties, and men in their later 20s. Ariel Skelley/ Corbis

66 66 Adulthood Although adulthood begins sometime after a persons mid-twenties, defining adulthood into stages is more difficult than defining stages during childhood or adolescence. Development continues throughout our adult lives Rick Doyle/ Corbis

67 67 Middle Adulthood Physical Development The peak of physical performance occurs around 20 years of age, after which it declines imperceptibly for most of us. Physical decline gradually accelerates the more we age, although physical vigor has more to do with how fit you are, regardless of how old you are.

68 68 Middle Adulthood (cont) Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after the mid- twenties. Around age 50, women go through menopause, the biological changes that women experience, including the cessation of menstruation, as their ability to reproduce declines. Men also experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility. Bettman/ Corbis

69 69 Old Age: Life Expectancy Life expectancy at birth increased from 49% in 1950 to 67% in 2004 and to 80% in developed countries. Women outlive men and outnumber them at most ages. Currently women live to an average age of 80.5 years, and men, 75.5 years. Gorges Gobet/ AP Photo

70 70 Old Age: Sensory Abilities After age 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time, and stamina. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks. Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit

71 71 Old Age: Motor Abilities and Health At age 70, our motor abilities also decline. A 70-year- old is no match for a 20-year-old individual. Fatal accidents also increase around this age. As for health, a lifetime of antibodies make the elderly less susceptible to the common flu and colds. However, the weakened immune system means they are more likely to contract pneumonia and cancer.

72 72 Old Age: Dementia With increasing age, the risk of dementia also increases. Dementia is not a normal part of growing old. Alan Oddie/ PhotoEdit

73 73 Old Age: Alzheimers and Dementia Dementia is any degenerative brain disease, that typically involves a loss of cognitive abilities. Alzheimers is a form of dementia. Individuals who are in the early stages of this disease show more MRI activity in the brain than do normal individuals of the same age. Susan Bookheimer

74 74 Cognitive Development Do cognitive abilities like memory, creativity, and intelligence decline with age the same way physical abilities do?

75 75 Aging and Memory As we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names becomes increasingly difficult. We remember things that have meaning to us, or an emotional connection

76 76 Aging and Memory Recognition memory does not decline with age, and material that is meaningful is recalled better than meaningless material. The same is true for prospective memory, the memories that involve skills or tasks that have been rehearsed and practiced. David Myers

77 77 Aging and Intelligence Cross-Sectional studies (comparing people of different ages against one another) suggest a decline in intelligence, but Longitudinal studies (studying the same people over time) suggest that intelligence remains relative as we age. It is believed today that fluid intelligence (ability to reason speedily) declines with age, but crystallized intelligence (accumulated knowledge and skills) does not.

78 78 Aging and Other Abilities A number of cognitive abilities decline with age. However, vocabulary and general knowledge increase with age. As does social intelligence (common sense and/or worldly knowledge).

79 79 Social Development Many differences between the young and old are not simply based on physical and cognitive abilities, but may instead be based on life events associated with family, relationships, and work.

80 80 Adulthoods Ages and Stages Psychologists doubt that adults pass through an orderly sequence of age-bound stages. Mid- life transitions (a desire to recapture some of the freedom of youth and single-life) at 40 are less likely to occur than crises triggered by major events (divorce, new marriage).

81 81 The Social Clock Society has memes and norms that establish commonly accepted times for certain life events. Natural disasters, family rearrangement (divorce), change of job, or any other event that causes mass disruption in the normal flow of lifes progression, can delay the social clock.

82 82 Life Events and Chance Encounters Marriage, parenthood, job and career changes, divorce, nest emptying, relocation and retirement mark new life stage transitions regardless of when they occur. Chance events can have lasting significance because they often deflect us down one road instead of another. Love, as a developmental issue, may assist or hinder normal psychosocial development. Work responsibilities, or a lack of a job, could also have a profound effect on traditional development.

83 83 Well-Being Across the Life Span Well-being and peoples feelings of satisfaction are stable across the life span.

84 84 Death and Dying There is no normal reaction or series of grief stages after the death of a loved one. Grief is more sudden if death occurs unexpectedly. People who reach a sense of integrity in life (in Eriksons terms) see life as meaningful and worthwhile. Chris Steele-Perkins/ Magnum Photos

85 85 Developmental Issues Researchers who view development as a slow, continuous process are generally those who emphasize experience and learning (Nurture). Biologists, on the other hand, view maturation and development as a series of genetically predisposed steps or stages. These include psychologists like Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson. Continuity and Stages

86 86 Stability vrs. Change Researchers who have followed lives through time have found evidence for both stability and change. There is continuity to personality, and yet life is a continuing process. The struggles of today lay the foundation for tomorrow.

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