Presentation on theme: "Presocratics Socrates and students Copyright Polly Hoover"— Presentation transcript:
1 Presocratics Socrates and students Copyright Polly Hoover PHILOSOPHYPresocraticsSocrates and studentsCopyright Polly Hoover
2 Beginning of Philosophy How was the world created?Who am I?Am I happy?How do I know anything?What is the world made of?Is there a divinity or divinities?What do we mean by knowledge?
3 Hesiod, Theogony Gaia and Uranus create the world Organized through hierarchy of godsHuman experience reflects explanationSexual intercourse as universalMythology as philosophy~750 BCE (contemporary of “Homer”)
4 Alcman World created through organization of material Vocabulary MetaphorNarrativeExamplesGoal, craftsman, bronze material
5 Presocratics Materialists What material is the world made of? Thales – waterHeraclitus – Fire (with logos)Empedocles – Fire, air, water, earth (with Strife and Love)
6 Pythagoras Influenced Socrates and Plato Wrote nothing? Immortality of the soulGreek modal system in musicPythagorean theoremMathematics as ‘substance’ of the world
7 Aristotle Four ‘causes’ of a thing Material – what a thing is made of Formal – explanation of form, its essenceEfficient – primary source (cause in modern sense)Final – purpose (the purpose of walking is health, the purpose of the acorn is an oak)Uncaused Causer or Unmoved mover
8 Plato, Symposium Banquet for men only Philosophical discussion among friendsLots of wine and teasing/flirting
9 What is love? What does it mean to be a man? How do we know that we’re in love?Is it universal (the same for everyone) or particular (different for everyone)?Does it matter whom you love?What is the Western Christian view of love?
10 Guests Give Opinions Phaedrus Pausanias: 2 Eros Eryximachus: Eros in natureRidicule of scientific arguments
11 Aristophanes Comic poet Three sexes Folktale and narrative Not philosophical argumentWhy?
13 Socrates interrogates Agathon Desire for something or nothing?Desire for something we don’t have?Eros desires beauty.Therefore, Eros is not beautiful.Good is beautiful.Therefore, Eros does not have what is good.
14 DiotimaRole reversal?Eros is intermediary between divine and human
16 QuestionsWhat were the Presocratic approaches to explaining the world?How did these differ from that of mythology?Does Socrates include sexual desire in his meaning of love?Is love universal or particular, according to Socrates?
17 More Questions? What does Socrates mean by happiness? What does Plato/Socrates think is real?Is this philosophy?What are the differences between a philosophical argument and a mythological story?