2 Pre-Socratic Philosophers Thales sixth century BCAll matter can be reduced to waterHeraclitusEverything is in a state of flux and therefore everything is subject to changeDemocritus fifth century BCAtomismAll matter is made up of very small particlesAtomism: Amazing anticipation of modern thinking. They observed that water could change to ice or ssteam and concluded that they all had a common basis.
3 All that we see and experience are copies of unseen realities PlatoAll that we see and experience are copies of unseen realitiesForms and UniversalsImplications for religious belief and science: the real is beyond what we experience in this world and is hidden in the eternalWhat we see on earth, for example a flower, is only a reflection of a more perfect and ideal flower. This ideal leads us beyond appearences and changes to the world of eternal and unchanging forms.
4 Aristotle 384–322BC A turn towards experience Metaphysics Four Causes Material CauseFormal CauseEfficient CauseFinal CauseProfound influence on Christian thought through St Thomas AquinasClassifed the sciences. Our knowledge comes from turning towards phenomena not turning away from it life Plato.Metaphysics= Lit. After the physics – the philosophy of being, examining the reality of things .Efficient cause = To be the agent of causeFinal Cause = For Christian thought became God
5 What causes something to move? Is this an infinite series? Aristotle continuedUnmoved moversWhat causes something to move?Is this an infinite series?An uncaused cause?St Thomas Aquinas – Cosmological Argument: God is the uncaused cause of the world!Note: At this stage in the development of cosmology, there is no distinction between science and philosophy. Metaphysics – which is really the branch of philosophy developed by Aristotle that has had most influence in the West- really means after or beside s physics. Physics was originally called ‘natural philosophy’.
6 Ptolemy of Alexandria second century BC Medieval Christian CosmologyMixture of Biblical imagery, Plato, Aristotle and PtolemyPtolemyEarth is centre of the universeSurrounded by glass spheres on which planets and stars movedTen spheres: seven for the planets, eighth was for stars, ninth was invisible and moved others, and tenth was the dwelling of God
7 Ptolemy continued The Earth made of four elements Earth Water Air Fire Movement was a result of the tendency of the elementsMovement of heavens is perfect and followed the perfect form, a circleImplications for later scientific theories!
8 St Augustine of Hippo (354–430) God is reflected in his creationThe highest feature of creation is the human personGod is reflected in the human personWonder at the splendour of creation should lead us to acknowledge the existence of GodPrecursor of the Argument from Design
9 The Kalam Argument Kalam (Arabic): to argue or discuss Two Muslim scholars – al-Kindi (ninth century AD) and al Ghazali (1058–1111 AD)Cosmological – Seeks to prove God is the creator of the universe
10 Kalam argument continued The present exists because at some point it began to existThe universe began to exist and must be finiteBecause the universe exists, it must have a cause for its existenceTherefore the universe has a first cause of its existenceThat first cause is GodAlthough you can have a theoretical infinite, you cannot have an actual infinite. At some point the universe could have, or could not have, come into existence. When two things are possible, it is argued, what will actually happen will depend on the will of an agent. Because the universe actually exists, then that aganet must exist and that agent is God.
11 St Thomas Aquinas 1224–1274Brilliant philosophical and theological mindDeveloped a synthesis between Aristotle’s metaphysics and Christian theologyBasis of his Five Ways into exploring the existence of GodNatural philosophy and religion naturally open up into each otherAristotle’s Prime Mover/First Cause becomes central to the Christian view of the world