Presentation on theme: "Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Chapter 7. Core Case Study: Connections between Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind Indirect form of solar energy Circulates."— Presentation transcript:
Core Case Study: Connections between Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind Indirect form of solar energy Circulates Heat Moisture Plant nutrients Soil particles Long-lived air pollutants
Dust Blown from West Africa to the Amazonian Rain Forests
7-1 What Factors Influence Climate? Concept 7-1 An area's climate is determined mostly by solar radiation, the earths rotation, global patterns of air and water movement, gases in the atmosphere, and the earths surface features.
The Earth Has Many Different Climates (1) Weather Climate Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to Uneven heating of the earths surface by the sun Rotation of the earth on its axis Properties of air, water, and land
The Earth Has Many Different Climates (2) Currents Prevailing winds Earths rotation Redistribution of heat from the sun Link between air circulation, ocean currents, and biomes
Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earths Current Climate Zones
Fig. 7-3, p. 142 Cold deserts 60°N Air cools and descends at lower latitudes. Westerlies Forests Northeast trades Hot deserts 30°N Warm air rises and moves toward the poles. Equator Forests 0° Solar energy Air cools and descends at lower latitudes. The highest solar energy input is at the equator. Southeast trades Hot deserts 30°S Westerlies Forests Cold deserts 60°S
Energy Transfer by Convection in the Atmosphere
Fig. 7-4, p. 143 Heat released radiates to space Cool, dry air Condensation and precipitation Falls, is compressed, warms Rises, expands, cools Warm, dry air Hot, wet air Flows toward low pressure, picks up moisture and heat HIGH PRESSURE Moist surface warmed by sun LOW PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE
Fig. 7-7, p. 145 Prevailing winds pick up moisture from an ocean. On the windward side of a mountain range, air rises, cools, and releases moisture. On the leeward side of the mountain range, air descends, warms, and releases little moisture.
7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.
Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live Major biomes Latitude and elevation Annual precipitation Temperature
There Are Three Major Types of Forests (1) Tropical Temperate Cold Northern coniferous and boreal
There Are Three Major Types of Forests (2) Tropical rain forests Temperature and moisture Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches Little wind: significance Rapid recycling of scarce soil nutrients Impact of human activities
There Are Three Major Types of Forests (3) Temperate deciduous forests Temperature and moisture Broad-leaf trees Slow rate of decomposition: significance Impact of human activities
There Are Three Major Types of Forests (4) Evergreen coniferous forests: boreal and taigas Temperature and moisture Few species of cone: bearing trees Slow decomposition: significance Coastal coniferous forest Temperate rain forests
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests
Some Components and Interactions in a Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem
Fig. 7-16, p. 155 Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Squirrel monkeys Climbing monstera palm Katydid Slaty-tailed trogon Green tree snake Tree frog Ants BacteriaBromeliad Fungi Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers
Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest
Fig. 7-17, p. 156 45 Harpy eagle Emergent layer 40 35 Toco toucan 30 Canopy 25 Height (meters) 20 Wooly opossum Under story 15 10 Brazilian tapir Shrub layer 5 Black-crowned antpitta Ground layer 0
Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State, U.S.
Mountains Play Important Ecological Roles Majority of the worlds forests Habitats for endemic species Help regulate the earths climate Can affect sea levels Major storehouses of water Role in hydrologic cycle
Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, U.S.
7-3 How Have We Affected the Words Terrestrial Ecosystems? Concept 7-3 In many areas, human activities are impairing ecological and economic services provided by the earths deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains.
Humans Have Disturbed Most of the Earths Lands Deserts Grasslands Forests Mountains
Fig. 7-20, p. 158 NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems Deserts Grasslands Forests Mountains Large desert cities Conversion to cropland Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Agriculture Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Timber extraction Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning grassland Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Mineral extraction Soil salinization from irrigation Increasing tourism Overgrazing by livestock Depletion of groundwater Damage from off- road vehicles Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Pollution of forest streams Soil damage from off-road vehicles
Mountains Agriculture Timber extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Mineral extraction Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road vehicles Forests Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Damage from off- road vehicles Pollution of forest streams Fig. 7-20, p. 158 Large desert cities Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Deserts Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of groundwater Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Grasslands Conversion to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning grassland Overgrazing by livestock Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Stepped Art NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems