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Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Chapter 7. Core Case Study: Connections between Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind Indirect form of solar energy Circulates.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Chapter 7. Core Case Study: Connections between Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind Indirect form of solar energy Circulates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate and Terrestrial Biodiversity Chapter 7

2 Core Case Study: Connections between Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind Indirect form of solar energy Circulates Heat Moisture Plant nutrients Soil particles Long-lived air pollutants

3 Dust Blown from West Africa to the Amazonian Rain Forests

4 7-1 What Factors Influence Climate? Concept 7-1 An area's climate is determined mostly by solar radiation, the earths rotation, global patterns of air and water movement, gases in the atmosphere, and the earths surface features.

5 The Earth Has Many Different Climates (1) Weather Climate Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to Uneven heating of the earths surface by the sun Rotation of the earth on its axis Properties of air, water, and land

6 The Earth Has Many Different Climates (2) Currents Prevailing winds Earths rotation Redistribution of heat from the sun Link between air circulation, ocean currents, and biomes

7 Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earths Current Climate Zones

8 Global Air Circulation

9 Fig. 7-3, p. 142 Cold deserts 60°N Air cools and descends at lower latitudes. Westerlies Forests Northeast trades Hot deserts 30°N Warm air rises and moves toward the poles. Equator Forests 0° Solar energy Air cools and descends at lower latitudes. The highest solar energy input is at the equator. Southeast trades Hot deserts 30°S Westerlies Forests Cold deserts 60°S

10 Energy Transfer by Convection in the Atmosphere

11 Fig. 7-4, p. 143 Heat released radiates to space Cool, dry air Condensation and precipitation Falls, is compressed, warms Rises, expands, cools Warm, dry air Hot, wet air Flows toward low pressure, picks up moisture and heat HIGH PRESSURE Moist surface warmed by sun LOW PRESSURE HIGH PRESSURE

12 Connected Deep and Shallow Ocean Currents

13 Fig. 7-5, p. 143 Warm, less salty, shallow current Cold, salty, deep current

14 Global Air Circulation, Ocean Currents, and Biomes

15 Fig. 7-6, p. 144 Moist air rises, cools, and releases moisture as rain Polar cap Arctic tundra Evergreen coniferous forest 60° Temperate deciduous forest and grassland 30° Desert Tropical deciduous forest Equator 0° Tropical rain forest 30° Desert 60° Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Tropical deciduous forest Polar cap

16 Greenhouse Gases Warm the Lower Atmosphere Greenhouse gases H 2 O CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Greenhouse effect Human-enhanced global warming

17 Flow of Energy to and from the Earth

18 The Earths Surface Features Affect Local Climates Heat absorption by land and water Effect of Mountains Rain shadow effect Cities Microclimates

19 Rain Shadow Effect

20 Fig. 7-7, p. 145 Prevailing winds pick up moisture from an ocean. On the windward side of a mountain range, air rises, cools, and releases moisture. On the leeward side of the mountain range, air descends, warms, and releases little moisture.

21 Active Figure: Biomes map

22 Active Figure: Climate and ocean currents map

23 Animation: El Nino Southern Oscillation

24 Animation: Air circulation

25 Animation: Greenhouse effect

26 Animation: Increasing greenhouse gases

27 Animation: Coastal breezes

28 Animation: Seasonal variation

29 Animation: Upwelling along western coasts

30 7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.

31 Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live Major biomes Latitude and elevation Annual precipitation Temperature

32 The Earths Major Biomes

33 Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes

34 Fig. 7-9, p. 147 Elevation Mountain ice and snow Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Deciduous Forest Latitude Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow

35 Latitude Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Fig. 7-9, p. 147 Elevation Mountain ice and snow Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Stepped Art

36 Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors

37 Fig. 7-10, p. 147 Cold Polar Tundra Subpolar Temperate Coniferous forest Desert Deciduous forest Grassland Chaparral Tropical Hot Desert Wet Rain forest Savanna Tropical seasonal forest Dry Scrubland

38 Science Focus: Staying Alive in the Desert Plant adaptations Animal strategies and adaptations

39 There Are Three Major Types of Deserts Tropical deserts Temperate deserts Cold deserts Fragile ecosystem Slow plant growth Low species diversity Slow nutrient recycling Lack of water

40 Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts

41 Fig. 7-11, p. 149 Stepped Art

42 There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (1) Tropical Temperate Cold (arctic tundra)

43 There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (2) Tropical Savanna Grazing animals Browsing animals Temperate Tall-grass prairies Short-grass prairies

44 There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands (3) Arctic tundra: fragile biome Adaptations of plants and animals Permafrost Alpine tundra

45 Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands

46 Fig. 7-12, p. 151 Stepped Art

47 Monoculture Crop Replacing Biologically Diverse Temperate Grassland

48 Temperate Shrubland: Nice Climate, Risky Place to Live Chaparral Near the sea: nice climate Prone to fires in the dry season

49 Chaparral Vegetation in Utah, U.S.

50 Fig. 7-14, p. 152 Stepped Art

51 There Are Three Major Types of Forests (1) Tropical Temperate Cold Northern coniferous and boreal

52 There Are Three Major Types of Forests (2) Tropical rain forests Temperature and moisture Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches Little wind: significance Rapid recycling of scarce soil nutrients Impact of human activities

53 There Are Three Major Types of Forests (3) Temperate deciduous forests Temperature and moisture Broad-leaf trees Slow rate of decomposition: significance Impact of human activities

54 There Are Three Major Types of Forests (4) Evergreen coniferous forests: boreal and taigas Temperature and moisture Few species of cone: bearing trees Slow decomposition: significance Coastal coniferous forest Temperate rain forests

55 Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests

56 Fig. 7-15, p. 154 Stepped Art

57 Some Components and Interactions in a Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem

58 Fig. 7-16, p. 155 Blue and gold macaw Harpy eagle Ocelot Squirrel monkeys Climbing monstera palm Katydid Slaty-tailed trogon Green tree snake Tree frog Ants BacteriaBromeliad Fungi Producer to primary consumer Primary to secondary consumer Secondary to higher-level consumer All producers and consumers to decomposers

59 Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest

60 Fig. 7-17, p Harpy eagle Emergent layer Toco toucan 30 Canopy 25 Height (meters) 20 Wooly opossum Under story Brazilian tapir Shrub layer 5 Black-crowned antpitta Ground layer 0

61 Temperate Rain Forest in Washington State, U.S.

62 Mountains Play Important Ecological Roles Majority of the worlds forests Habitats for endemic species Help regulate the earths climate Can affect sea levels Major storehouses of water Role in hydrologic cycle

63 Mount Rainier National Park in Washington State, U.S.

64 Video: Caribou on tundra

65 Video: Desertification in China

66 Video: Eagle fishing

67 Animation: Prairie food web

68 Active Figure: Rainforest food web

69 Video: Sequoias

70 Video: Tundra flyover

71 7-3 How Have We Affected the Words Terrestrial Ecosystems? Concept 7-3 In many areas, human activities are impairing ecological and economic services provided by the earths deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains.

72 Humans Have Disturbed Most of the Earths Lands Deserts Grasslands Forests Mountains

73 Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems

74 Fig. 7-20, p. 158 NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems Deserts Grasslands Forests Mountains Large desert cities Conversion to cropland Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Agriculture Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Timber extraction Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning grassland Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Mineral extraction Soil salinization from irrigation Increasing tourism Overgrazing by livestock Depletion of groundwater Damage from off- road vehicles Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Pollution of forest streams Soil damage from off-road vehicles

75 Mountains Agriculture Timber extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Mineral extraction Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road vehicles Forests Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Damage from off- road vehicles Pollution of forest streams Fig. 7-20, p. 158 Large desert cities Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Deserts Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of groundwater Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Grasslands Conversion to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning grassland Overgrazing by livestock Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Stepped Art NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems

76 Video: Gopher

77 Video: Grizzly bears

78 Video: Owl hunting


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