Presentation on theme: "Let’s dance. Stand up. Your face is earth. I am the sun. Where is your north pole? Your forehead is North America. Where is New York? California? (Help."— Presentation transcript:
Let’s dance. Stand up. Your face is earth. I am the sun. Where is your north pole? Your forehead is North America. Where is New York? California? (Help each other) Where does the sun rise? Set? Now rotate. How long does this take? The earth is tilted. How much? Where is the north star for you? Why do we have summer? Winter? Now revolve but don’t rotate. How long does this take?
Core Case Study: Connections b/t Wind, Climate, and Biomes Wind – Driven by solar energy Circulates – Heat – Moisture – Plant nutrients – Soil particles – Long-lived air pollutants
Dust Blown from West Africa to the Amazonian Rain Forests VideoVideo!
7-1 What Factors Influence Climate? Concept 7-1 An area's climate is determined mostly by – solar radiation, – the earth’s rotation, – global patterns of air and water movement, – gases in the atmosphere, – and the earth’s surface features.
The Earth Has Many Different Climates Weather – short term Climate – long term pattern Air circulation in lower atmosphere due to – Uneven heating of the earth’s surface by the sun – Rotation of the earth on its axis – Properties of air, water, and land
The Earth Has Many Different Climates Currents – Prevailing winds – Earth’s rotation – Redistribution of heat from the sun Link between air circulation, ocean currents, and biomes
Ocean currents video n08.html n08.html
Natural Capital: Generalized Map of the Earth’s Current Climate Zones
Connected Deep and Shallow Ocean Currents
El Niño, La Niña ations/animations/26_NinoNina.html (not funny) ations/animations/26_NinoNina.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IvmeUSt Fvz8 (Funny) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IvmeUSt Fvz8
Global Air Circulation – prevailing winds
Energy Transfer by Convection in the Atmosphere
Global Air Circulation, Ocean Currents, and Biomes
Greenhouse Gases Warm the Lower Atmosphere Greenhouse gases – H 2 O – CO 2 * – CH 4 * – N 2 O * Greenhouse effect – good and bad *Human-enhanced global warming
Flow of Energy to and from the Earth
The Earth’s Surface Features Affect Local Climates Heat absorption by land and water Effect of – Mountains Rain shadow effect – windward (wet), leeward (dry) – Cities Microclimates
Rain Shadow Effect
Death Valley Photo: L. Kern, 2014
7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes? Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.
Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live Major biomes – regions with similar climate, soil, plants, animals Latitude and elevation Climates can be categorized by – Annual precipitation – Temperature
The Earth’s Major Biomes
Generalized Effects of Elevation and Latitude on Climate and Biomes
St. Mary Lake, Glacier NP, Montana Boreal forest (taiga) Tundra, lichens, mosses No plants can grow here. Photo: L. Kern, 2012
Another view at Glacier Photo: L. Kern, 2012
Going-to-the-sun Road, Logan Pass July 4 th, 2012 Photo: L. Kern, 2012
Going-to-the-sun road Purple/gray patches are areas where pines were all killed in a forest fire, Photo: L. Kern, 2012
In summer, the snowmelt makes hundreds of waterfalls. Photo: L. Kern, 2012
Close-up of the previous pic. Photo: L. Kern, 2012
Natural Capital: Average Precipitation and Average Temperature as Limiting Factors
Science Focus: Staying Alive in the Desert Plant adaptations – Either drop leaves (mesquite, creosote) when dry or no leaves (succulents), leaves are waxy – Deep tap roots or shallow widespread roots – Large seeds that can lie dormant for long periods Animal strategies and adaptations – Small size, nocturnal, get water from breaking down fats, thick skins, excrete dry wastes
There Are Three Major Types of Deserts Tropical, Temperate, Cold deserts Fragile ecosystem – Slow plant growth – Low species diversity – Slow nutrient recycling – Lack of water
Wind blown dust storms in Saraha - increased 10x since 1950 due to – Overgrazing – Drought due to Climate change Human overuse of water – SUV connection: 4x4s driving over surface, allowing it to crumble and be picked up by winds.
Climate Graphs of Three Types of Deserts
There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands Tropical – Savanna Grazing animals – eat grasses Browsing animals – eat twigs and leaves Temperate – Tall-grass prairies (up to 88cm/yr) – Short-grass prairies (25 cm/yr)
Grasslands – why no trees Fires are common in grasslands Fires and winds hinder tree growth Many of these areas are degraded by overgrazing
There Are Three Major Types of Grasslands Arctic tundra: fragile biome Adaptations of plants and animals Permafrost – layer in soil where water stays frozen 2+ years! Permafrost doesn’t allow water to permeate soil – lakes and ponds Alpine tundra
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Grasslands
Temperate Shrubland: Nice Climate, Risky Place to Live Chaparral, temp shrubland Near the sea: nice climate Prone to fires in the dry season – Fire resistant roots – Seeds sprout with fire Thin soil, not very fertile
Chaparral Vegetation in Utah, U.S.
There Are Three Major Types of Forests Tropical Temperate Cold – Northern coniferous and boreal forest / taiga
There Are Three Major Types of Forests Tropical rain forests – Broadleaf, evergreen trees – Temperature and moisture – Stratification of specialized plant and animal niches – Little wind: significance – seed dispersal – Rapid recycling of scarce soil nutrients – Impact of human activities
There Are Three Major Types of Forests Temperate deciduous forests – Temperature and moisture – Broad-leaf, deciduous trees – Slow rate of decomposition: significance – Impact of human activities – most disturbed
There Are Three Major Types of Forests Evergreen coniferous forests: boreal and taigas – Temperature and moisture – Few species of cone: bearing trees – Slow decomposition: significance Coastal coniferous forest Temperate rain forests
Climate Graphs of Tropical, Temperate, and Cold Forests
Some Components and Interactions in a Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystem
Stratification of Specialized Plant and Animal Niches in a Tropical Rain Forest
Mountains Play Important Ecological Roles Majority of the world’s forests Habitats for endemic species Help regulate the earth’s climate Can affect sea levels Major storehouses of water – Role in hydrologic cycle (see slide #28 again)
7-3 How Have We Affected the Word’s Terrestrial Ecosystems? Concept 7-3 In many areas, human activities are impairing ecological and economic services provided by the earth’s deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains.
Humans Have Disturbed Most of the Earth’s Lands Deserts Grasslands Forests Mountains
Agriculture Timber extraction Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Mineral extraction Increasing tourism Urban air pollution Increased ultraviolet radiation from ozone depletion Soil damage from off-road vehicles Forests Clearing for agriculture, livestock grazing, timber, and urban development Conversion of diverse forests to tree plantations Damage from off- road vehicles Pollution of forest streams Fig. 7-20, p. 158 Large desert cities Soil destruction by off-road vehicles Deserts Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of groundwater Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Grasslands Conversion to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning grassland Overgrazing by livestock Oil production and off-road vehicles in arctic tundra Stepped Art NATURAL CAPITAL DEGRADATION Major Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems