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Myers PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 6 Learning Worth Publishers Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning. Success Criteria: Students can create.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 6 Learning Worth Publishers Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning. Success Criteria: Students can create."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 6 Learning Worth Publishers Purpose: Students will view examples of classical conditioning. Success Criteria: Students can create their own example of a classical conditioning experiment.

2 Learning relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience

3 Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences

4 Association Learning to associate two events Event 1Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics

5 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli

6 Operant Conditioning We learn to associate a response and its consequence

7 Video zClassical Conditioning and the Office

8 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions

9 Pavlovs Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During ConditioningAfter Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)

10 Classical Conditioning Pavlovs device for recording salivation

11 Video zPavlov

12 Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

13 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

14 Video zLittle Albert

15 Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth

16 Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

17 Classical Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

18 Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)

19 Classical Conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

20 Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

21 Classical Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses

22 Classical Conditioning Discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS

23 Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds Hind paw PelvisShoulder Front paw ThighTrunkForeleg Part of body stimulated

24 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)

25 Classical Conditioning zWith your neighbor, create a Classical Conditioning experiment. zPlease include: yUS yCS yCR yUR yHypothesis for reaction yExtinction plan

26 Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

27 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

28 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner ( ) elaborated Thorndikes Law of Effect developed behavioral technology

29 Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses

30 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

31 Operant Conditioning

32 Video zBig Bang Theory

33 Operant Conditioning Experiment zBoo…Hiss…What the heck

34 Principles of Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer

35 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

36 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay

37 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

38 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

39 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz

40 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80

41 Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

42 Punishment

43 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of ones environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

44 Latent Learning

45 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

46 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

47 Operant vs Classical Conditioning

48 Observational Learning learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior

49 Observational Learning Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

50 Conditioning and Racism zInstructions: write your own answer for 3-5 minutes without talking. zHow could classical or operant conditioning explain racist behavior?

51 Conditioning and Racism zVolunteers to share? zUCS- UCR zCS+ UCS- UCR zCS- CR z zviolence- fear zRace + violence - fear zrace- fear zDo you think this type of conditioning happens? Share examples? z(Observational learning) yCould this model happen through the media? How? Does it happen on the evening news? zHow can we apply extinction?

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