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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Learning  Learning  relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience

3 Learning  Learning --refers to the relatively  permanent change in an organism’s behavior to a given situation brought about by,  repeated experiences in that situation,  provided that behavior change cannot be explained on basis of native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the organism.

4 Association  We learn by association  Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence  Aristotle 2000 years ago  John Locke and David Hume 200 years ago  Associative Learning  learning that two events occur together  two stimuli  a response and its consequences

5 Association  Learning to associate two events Event 1Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics

6 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning  We learn to associate two stimuli

7 Operant Conditioning  We learn to associate a response and its consequence

8 Classical Conditioning  Ivan Pavlov  1849-1936  Russian physician/ neurophysiologist  Nobel Prize in 1904  studied digestive secretions

9 Definition of Classical Conditioning  Conditioning is a method of controlling or influencing the way people or animals behave or think by using a gradual training process  Conditioning Stimulus in classical psychological conditioning, an otherwise ineffective stimulus that, when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, is able to evoke a conditioned response  Unconditioned Stimulus that evokes a reflexive response without prior conditioning or learning  Conditioned Response (conditioned reflex) is a response to a new second stimulus as a result of association with a prior stimulus

10 Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During ConditioningAfter Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)

11 Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s device for recording salivation

12 Classical Conditioning  Classical Conditioning  organism comes to associate two stimuli  a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus

13 Behaviorism  John B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

14 Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response  Unconditioned Response (UCR)  unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus  salivation when food is in the mouth

15 Classical Conditioning  Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response  Conditioned Response (CR)  learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus

16 Classical Conditioning  Acquisition  the initial stage in classical conditioning  the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response  in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

17 Classical Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)

18 Classical Conditioning  Extinction  diminishing of a CR  in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS  in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

19 Classical Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR

20 Classical Conditioning  Spontaneous Recovery  reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR  Generalization  tendency for stimuli similar to CS to elicit similar responses

21 Classical Conditioning  Discrimination  in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal a UCS

22 Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw PelvisShoulder Front paw ThighTrunkForeleg Part of body stimulated

23 Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)

24 Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning  type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment  Law of Effect  Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

25 Operant Conditioning  Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on environment  produces consequences  Respondent Behavior  occurs as an automatic response to stimulus  behavior learned through classical conditioning

26 Operant Conditioning  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect  developed behavioral technology

27 Operant Chamber  Skinner Box  chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer  contains devices to record responses

28 Operant Conditioning  Reinforcer  any event that strengthens the behavior it follows  Shaping  operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

29 Operant Conditioning

30 Principles of Reinforcement  Primary Reinforcer  innately reinforcing stimulus  i.e., satisfies a biological need  Conditioned Reinforcer  stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer  secondary reinforcer

31 Schedules of Reinforcement  Continuous Reinforcement  reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs  Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement  reinforcing a response only part of the time  results in slower acquisition  greater resistance to extinction

32 Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Ratio (FR)  reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses  faster you respond the more rewards you get  different ratios  very high rate of responding  like piecework pay

33 Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Ratio (VR)  reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses  average ratios  like gambling, fishing  very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

34 Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed Interval (FI)  reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed  response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

35 Schedules of Reinforcement  Variable Interval (VI)  reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals  produces slow steady responding  like pop quiz

36 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10203040506070 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80

37 Punishment  Punishment  aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows  powerful controller of unwanted behavior

38 Punishment

39 Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Cognitive Map  mental representation of the layout of one’s environment  Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it  Latent Learning  learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

40 Latent Learning

41 Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Overjustification Effect  the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do  the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

42 Cognition and Operant Conditioning  Intrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective  Extrinsic Motivation  Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

43 Operant vs Classical Conditioning

44 Observational Learning  Observational Learning  learning by observing others  Modeling  process of observing and imitating a specific behavior  Prosocial Behavior  positive, constructive, helpful behavior  opposite of antisocial behavior

45 Observational Learning  Mirror Neurons  frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so  may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

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