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1 Using Response to Intervention for Washingtons Students Paul Alig OSPI, Special Education Program Supervisor Tonya Middling OSPI, Special Education Program.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Using Response to Intervention for Washingtons Students Paul Alig OSPI, Special Education Program Supervisor Tonya Middling OSPI, Special Education Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Using Response to Intervention for Washingtons Students Paul Alig OSPI, Special Education Program Supervisor Tonya Middling OSPI, Special Education Program Supervisor SEAC September 27, 2006

2 2 Overview Defining RTI Where did it come from and why do we need it? Support for RTI in federal law Core principles Special education eligibility considerations Policy issues Professional development issues

3 3 Defining RTI RTI is a general education approach that aligns resources from general, remedial and special education through a multi-tiered service delivery model in order to provide scientific, research-based interventions to struggling students.

4 4 Defining RTI, cont. RTI includes making data-based decisions based on curriculum based measurements (CBMs) through problem-solving or standard protocol measures Uses progress monitoring (formative assessments) Specific Learning Disability Identification

5 5 Where did it come from and why do we need it? Background and Research Support The idea of using CBMs to identify student needs is not new. Stan Denos data-based decision program modification model (Deno, 1985; Deno & Mirkin, 1977) Bergans behavioral consultation model (Bergan, 1977) Problems in the traditional system (Wait to fail) Integration between general and special education Undocumented benefits of special education Variability and accuracy of eligibility determination Integration of eligibility determination with instruction

6 6 Support for RTI in federal law Provisions of IDEA 2004 allow school districts to use scientific, research-based interventions as an alternative method for identifying students with SLD. Aligns with No Child Left Behind (2001)

7 7 RTI Manual Introduction Outlines principle components of RTI Guidance on RTI decision making Recommendations on using RTI data to identify specific learning disabilities (SLD) Answers common questions Includes additional resources and practical appendices

8 8 How to use the manual Recommendations NOT regulations Readiness checklist Each district and school design their own RTI system depending on curriculum decisions and resources NOTE: An RTI system is a combined general education and special education approach OSPIs RTI manual is aligned with OSPIs K-12 Reading Model

9 9 Response to Intervention: Core Principles Use all available resources to teach all students Use scientific, research-based interventions Monitor classroom performance Conduct universal screening/benchmarking Use multi-tier model of service delivery Make data based decisions using a problem solving/standard protocol Monitor progress frequently Fidelity

10 10 Use all available resources to teach all students RTI practices are built on the belief that all students can learn and everyone supports all students RTI focuses on student intervention need and not What is wrong with the student? Systems Change: Integrated approach No one building/district will look the same

11 11 Use all available resources to teach all students, cont. Basic Education LAP/Title Reading First (NCLB, 2001) School Improvement Plan Student Learning Plans Special Education (IDEA 2004) Other resources available to the building/district

12 12 Use scientific, research-based interventions Curriculum and instruction approaches must have a high probability of success for the majority of students Offer as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind Increase intensity of instruction and practice Opportunity for explicit and systematic instruction/practice and cumulative review Provide skillful instruction with good error correction, immediate feedback Guided by and in response to progress monitoring data Must provide a supportive atmosphere for learning

13 13 Monitor classroom performance General education teacher play a vital role in designing and delivering high quality instruction General education teachers also monitor student progress through CBMs Student performance in relationship to state standards (GLEs)

14 14 Universal Screening School staff conduct universal screening in all academic areas and behavior to all students three times/year to identify students at risk Benchmarks document whether a child is on track compared to peer group and/or state standards The students data at benchmark testing periods can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of intervention. Is the gap closing?

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17 17 Features of a Multi-Tiered Model Each tier represents increasingly intense level of services associated with increasing levels of learner needs All students, including those with disabilities are found in Tiers I, II, and III The nature of the academic or behavioral intervention changes at each tier, becoming more rigorous as the student moves through the tiers Students move up and down the tiers depending on need

18 18 80% of your students should be here 15% of your students should be here 5% of your students should be here Three-Tier Model of School Supports

19 19 Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier I Tier I: ALL Students All students receive high quality scientific research based instruction in the core curriculum in all areas Core curriculum provides the foundation for instruction upon which all strategic and intensive interventions are formulated Serves 80-90% of the student body Some Tier 1 interventions may be applied to at risk students followed by progress monitoring

20 20 Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II Tier II: Some Students Strategic interventions supplements instruction to students who are not achieving standards through the core curriculum alone Consists of 5-10% of the student body Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students Short-term in duration [9-12 week blocks] Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at minutes per session Students progress is monitored more frequently at Tier II, usually every 2 weeks

21 21 Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier II, cont. Tier II: Some Students Students may receive more than one block of Tier II interventions if progressing but who have not yet reached the goal Students who reach goal would be reintegrated into Tier I Students who do not progress in Tier II may require more intensive interventions

22 22 Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III Tier III: Few Students Intensive interventions are designed to accelerate a students rate of learning by increasing the frequency and duration of individualized interventions based on targeted assessment data. Students at Tier III are those performing significantly below standards and have not adequately responded to Tier I or Tier II interventions Consists of less than 5% of student body Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally May occur longer than 9-12 weeks Students progress is monitored on at least a weekly basis

23 23 Use multi-tier model of service delivery: Tier III, cont. Tier III: Few Students Students who are successful at Tier III reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support If not successful at Tier III, consider referral for special education and/or other long-term planning [504 plan, additional Tier III cycle]

24 24 Data-Based Decision Making The purpose of using data based decision making is to find the best instructional approach for a student with an academic or behavioral problem Decisions are made by teams consisting of professionals knowledgeable about the student, and the parent Decisions are made through the problem solving process or standard protocol

25 25 Progress Monitoring Performance or Criterion Assessments Standardized Assessments Benchmarking or Screening Instructional Problem Solving Requires taking multiple sources of evidence and selecting appropriate instructional interventions based on identified student needs Designing Instruction to Meet Student Needs

26 26 Develop a Plan Decide on the intervention, timeframe, frequency and intervention provider Define the Problem Clearly identify the deficit area Analyze the Cause Develop a hypothesis: Why is the problem happening? Implement the Plan Carry out the intervention as planned Evaluate the Plan Compare progress to the aimline. Did it work? A Problem Solving Process

27 27 Domains of Influence I. nstruction How we teach C. urriculum What is being taught E. nvironment Context where learning is to occur L. earner Characteristics that directly relate to the area of concern

28 28 R.I.O.T. Review Work Samples Cumulative Folders Health Records Interview Teachers Parents Student Significant Others Observe Student-teacher Student-peer Test Curriculum based Norm referenced Criterion referenced Rating Scales

29 29 Evaluation Planning Relevant KNOWN Relevant UNKNOWN Instruction (R.I.O.T.) Curriculum (R.I.O.T.) Environment (R.I.O.T.) Learner (R.I.O.T.)

30 30 Standard Treatment Protocol Process where student decisions are made using an established response to regular occurring circumstances [e.g., Read Well] Implementation involves a trial of fixed duration [e.g., 9-12 weeks] Emerging research is showing success implementing this approach at Tier I and Tier II in the area of reading

31 31 Progress Monitoring Documents student growth over time to determine whether the student is progressing as expected in tiers CBMs are primarily used as a method for progress monitoring because they are brief, easy to administer and score, and are good predictors of student ability Progress monitoring data provide a picture of the students performance and rate of growth to inform instructional and curricular changes so that every student reaches proficiency on targeted skills

32 Words Read Correct B X X X

33 Words Read Correct B X X XX XX X X X X X X X X X X

34 34 Lack of Responsiveness to Interventions Defined as rate of improvement, or progress slope that is not sufficient for the student to become proficient with state standards without more interventions Decisions to advance students from one tier to another is based upon analysis of the progress monitoring data to determine if the student is responsive [e.g. 4-6 data points below the aimline after interventions have been altered may show a student is non-responsive]

35 35 Targeted Assessment Targeted assessment means shifting to evaluations that are designed around the specific targeted concerns of the student. In other words, we select assessments that measure the area of concern rather than administering an assessment and then trying to determine what it means. Usually conducted when student enters Tier III, but may be conducted earlier

36 36 Fidelity Fidelity refers to the degree to which RTI components are implemented as designed, intended, and planned. Fidelity is achieved through sufficient time allocation, adequate intervention intensity, qualified and trained staff, and sufficient materials and resources. Fidelity is vital in universal screening, instructional delivery and progress monitoring.

37 37 Intervention Plan Documents analysis of student data and outlines interventions and evaluation of progress Also documents implementation of interventions with fidelity [See appendix F]

38 38 RTI and Child Find Anyone, including parents and teachers, can make a referral at any time in a RTI system. A student cannot be required to go all the way through Tier III before being evaluated if evidence exists to suspect a disability.

39 39 When should a student be suspected of having a disability due to a lack of responsiveness? Students who are performing significantly less than their peers and have been provided two or more Tier III interventions that did not significantly decrease the gap in achievement should be suspected as having SLD and evaluated absent other evidence.

40 40 Parent Involvement in RTI In a RTI system parents must be provided progress monitoring data. 34 CFR Sec (b)(2). Parents must also be informed of: State policies regarding the amount and nature of student performance data that is collected and the general education services that are provided; The strategies for increasing the students rate of learning; and Their right to request an evaluation. 34 CFR Sec (a)(7).

41 41 Is consent required before conducting screenings or CBMs? Teachers or specialists do not need to obtain consent to evaluate when administering universal screening, CBMs, or targeted assessments to a student in order to determine appropriate instructional strategies for curriculum implementation. 20 USC Sec. 1414(a)(1)(E).

42 42 Using RTI data to identify SLD District procedures set out criteria for using RTI data to establish SLD. District criteria must incorporate new federal regulations on SLD. 34 CFR Sections through

43 43 Adopt an established approach for using RTI data to identify SLD Districts are strongly encouraged to use established approaches for using RTI data to identify SLD. Criteria determines if a student is not making sufficient progress to meet age or State-approved grade- level standards in one or more of the SLD areas. 34 CFR Sec (a)(2)(i).

44 44 Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using RTI: Question 1 Where at least two phases of intensive interventions implemented in the general education curriculum with fidelity, which did not affect the students achievement and does evidence of the students non- responsiveness at Tier III reflect that he or she is learning at a rate significantly less that her or his peers?

45 45 Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using RTI: Question 2 Do RTI and other existing data (including observation) meet at least two of the following four criteria: 1)CBM scores showing the student is performing at or below the 7 th percentile of current grade-level or at or below the 16 th percentile of a previous grade-level; 2)A standardized assessment score that is 1.75 standard deviations below the mean (within test protocols); 3)CBM scores and other data demonstrate the students median performance is at or below his or her grade placement peers by a discrepancy ratio of at least 2; 4)The students instructional performance level is two or more grade levels below her or his current grade placement determined by CBM scores, classroom performance, observation and, if appropriate, standardized assessments?

46 46 Recommended criteria for identifying SLD using RTI: Question 3 Does the evaluation group (including the parent) believe the student requires resources that are not available in the general education setting, with or without accommodations, in order to participate or progress in the general education curriculum at a level equal to his or her peers? Evidence of this criterion would show that the student requires specially designed instruction or Tier III interventions for an extended period of time that is not available in the general education curriculum.

47 47 Evaluation Report To establish SLD, under recommended approach, the report must reflect a yes to all three questions (sample in Appendix H). Also need to rule out: (1) visual, hearing, or motor disability; (2) mental retardation; (3) emotional disturbance; (4) cultural factors; and (5) limited English proficiency. 34 CFR Sec (a)(3). Must have data to show the student received appropriate reading and mathematics instructions. 34 CFR Sec (b).

48 48 Special Education Eligibility To be eligible for special education, the evaluation group for students with SLD must find an adverse educational impact and the need for specially designed instruction (SDI). The evaluation report for eligible students should include recommendations about the SDI and any related services, program modifications, accommodations and other supports the student needs with enough specificity to develop an IEP. In a RTI system, the SDI provided should supplement the scientific-based interventions and high quality instruction the student was already receiving in general education.

49 49 Same players; new roles I The New Psychologist Role Data Manager Data Analyzer Data Synthesizer Detective Extraordinaire Progress Monitoring? The New Sped Teacher Role Data Provider Targeted Assessment Progress Monitoring Intervention opportunities

50 50 Same players; new roles II The New Parent Role Data Provider (FAAB) Interventionist Progress Monitoring The New General Ed.Teacher Role Tier 1 & Tier 2 interventions Progress Monitoring Data provider (FAAB) for Learning Env. Be ready for intervention

51 51 Same players; new roles III The New Principal Role As goes the principals attitude, so goes the team Providing for the assessment of intervention fidelity The New Attitude We are not looking at the child as broken Focus is on Why isnt the general education curriculum working for this child?

52 52 EIS Early Intervening Services are: Activities to support students in grades K-12 who are not currently identified as needing special education, but who need additional academic and behavioral support to succeed in the general education curriculum Districts may not use more than 15% of IDEA Part B funds for EIS activities, less any amount reduced by MOE 34 CFR §

53 53 EIS Allowable Activities EIS activities may include: Professional development for teachers and other school staff to enable such personnel to deliver scientifically based academic and behavioral interventions; Instruction on use of adaptive and instructional software; and Educational and behavioral evaluations, services and supports

54 54 How districts may use EIS funds During the school year, 15 school districts set aside EIS funds for a variety of activities, including: Offering extended Kindergarten for at-risk students Behavioral evaluations, including FBAs, and behavioral services to general education students to improve students school-socialized behaviors PD on delivery and implementation of SRBI Math interventions for students in grades 1-6 High school academic and behavioral services for students who did not qualify for special education. Goal was to reduce the number of referrals to special education at the high school level; and to match services to student needs

55 55 Disproportionate Representation States must require LEAs to reserve maximum amount of EIS funds to address any issues of disproportionate representation of minority students in special education Currently, LEAs are identified through the state monitoring system (routine, focused, targeted) looking at both numerical data and policies and procedures (may change with final federal regulations which allow states to require EIS set aside based on disproportionate numerical data only 34 CFR §

56 56 Statewide Efforts Implementation through each ESD for professional development District RTI pilot sites statewide Technical assistance SIG grant Coordination with OSPI C&I, Reading First, School Improvement, Title 1, ELL OSPI January and summer institutes Stakeholder Conferences [WSASP, WERA, I.D.E.A.S., etc.] Other resources: WEA, Wayne Callender and other experts Other ideas?

57 57 Questions? RTI Manual: Additional Resources available at same website

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