Presentation on theme: "WVDE State Update Speech-language Pathology Services in WV Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1 WVDE State Update 2011 Speech-language Pathology Services in WV Schools WVSHA ANNUAL ConventionMarch 31, 2011Kathy Knighton, Program CoordinatorOffice of Special ProgramsWest Virginia Department of Education
2 AGENDA West Virginia Department of Education WVDE Update Office of Special Programs (OSP)WVDE UpdateOSP UpdateWV School Data ReportUpcoming Events“Hot” TopicsReview of SLP Best Practices Guidance DocumentNext Steps
3 West Virginia Department of Education Dr. Jorea Marple, State Superintendent of SchoolsDr. Jack McClanahan, Deputy SuperintendentRobert Hull, Assistant State SuperintendentDivision of Curriculum and InstructionPat Homberg, Executive DirectorOffice of Special ProgramsDr. Sandra McQuain , Assistant DirectorFinancial and Data IssuesPhyllis Veith, Assistant DirectorLiteracy InitiativesGhaski Browning, Assistant DirectorSpecial Education - Monitoring and Compliance
5 WVDE/OSP UPDATES WVDE/OSP WEBSITE: http://wvde.state.wv.us/osp OSEP Federal MonitoringResponse to Intervention (RTI)Statewide Training/Middle/High SchoolParent FlyerRTI SPECIALISTSECPBS (Early Childhood Positive Behavior Supports)Francie Clark/Ginger HuffmanOn-line IEP Form -Allen SextonVisual Phonics –Annette CareyCommunication Matrix TrainingAlternate Identification and Reporting (AIR) ProjectDemonstration and evaluation of IDEA entitlements without disability labels
6 WVDE/OSP UPDATES Autism Focus WV Autism Collaborative Community of PracticeWVDE, Autism Training Center, Marshall Graduate College, WVUDevelop guidance for LEA personnel serving students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Provide decision making guidance that incorporates current researchOutcomesTraining to administer the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the definitive assessment instrument for ASDBest Practice DocumentProvide professional Development to countiesAutism Academies (on-going)School Outreach Trainer (Autism Center)Expand web based resources
7 WVDE School Data Report WV DATA ANALYSIS ( ) 12/1 IDEA CHILD COUNTWV Total School Enrollment ,130Students with Disabilities , %Preschool Special Needs , %Specific Learning Disabilities , %Speech/Language Impairments 14, % (unduplicated)Autism , %Behavior DisordersOther Health Impaired %PERSONNELSLPS/ 29 Speech AssistantsNATIONAL BOARD CERTIFICTIONTotals: SLPs – 307 Audiologists – 8Scottie Ford, Office of Personnel Preparation
8 UPCOMING EVENTS ASHA Conferences 2011 Schools Conference: July 8–10 National Harbor, MarylandAnnual Convention: November 17–19, 2011 San Diego, California CAMP GIZMO : July 9-14, 2011WV Schools For Deaf/Blind - Romney, WVWVDE Phonemic Awareness ProjectRefresher TrainingAugust 2011WV Technology ConferenceAugust 2-4, 2011Morgantown Waterfront Hotel2011 Celebrating Connections: FebCharleston Civic Center
9 “HOT TOPICS” Critical Personnel Shortage Cost of Contracted Services Over Identification of SLI StudentsArticulationUniversal PreKExpanded Preschool PopulationLow Dismissal RatesIneffective SchedulingInconsistent Program ImplementationRole of SLP in Literacy InitiativesOn-line IEP and SpeechRelated Services on Speech-only IEPsIncrease in Autism PopulationAssistive TechnologyFundingTrainingMedicaidCEUsHealthCheck
10 Office of Special Programs West Virginia Department of Education Speech-language Pathology: Services in WV Schools Guidelines for Best PracticeKathy KnightonOffice of Special ProgramsWest Virginia Department of Education
11 PURPOSESLP RESOURCEClarify State/federal regulationsReflect Best PracticeImprove ConsistencyAssist SLPs, special education directors and school administrators:Facilitate speech-language services in their schoolsImprove outcomes for SLI studentsSpecial education practices and procedures for students receiving speech/language services are explained and clarified.Reference for SLPs/administrators regarding the delivery of services to students with speech-language impairments and the role of the SLP.
12 SLP WORK GROUP MEMBERS Alice Akers – Logan County Tondra Elkins – Mingo CountyMarsha Fink – Raleigh CountyLisa Jackson – WVSHA / Raleigh CountyNancy Laughlin – Marion CountyCheryl Prichard – WVUBernadette Rush – Harrison CountyKerynn Sovic – Jackson CountyAnna Smith – Putnam CountyJanet Stone – Monongalia CountyTerri Stark – Cabell CountyThanks to Virginia Department of Education for allowing WV to use their resources from their guidance document.
13 CONSIDERATIONS FORMAT CONTENT RESOURCES Summary Recommendation of Speech ForumsState Guidance DocumentsCONTENTReflect best practiceUser-friendlyComprehensive, but not overwhelmingWV Specific IssuesRESOURCESASHA ResourcesWeb-based resourcesNational/state resourcesThe speech forums were held several years ago – one in the north and one in the south.SLPs from throughout the state participated.Their recommendations formed the foundation for this document.
14 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEGEMENTS FOREWORD INTRODUCTION FEDERAL/STATE REGULATIONSIDEAPolicy 2419ROLE OF THE SLPResponsibilities Not Within the RoleWV SPECIAL EDUCATION PROCESS: SPEECH-LANGUAGEIdentification and ReferralEvaluation/ReevaluationEligibilityIndividualized Education ProgramService DeliveryScheduling
15 TABLE OF CONTENTS……… MANAGEMENT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)AutismChildhood ApraxiaCochlear ImplantDeaf/ Hard of HearingDysphagiaEnglish Language LearnersPROGRAM IMLEMENTATIONAssistive TechnologyWV Early Childhood EducationLiteracyResponse to InterventionMedicaidSection 504
16 TABLE OF CONTENTS….. PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REFERENCES APPENDICES PersonnelNational Board CertificationUse of Speech AssistantsCoordination: School Based ProgramsFacilitiesREFERENCESAPPENDICESGlossary/Acronyms/Online ResourcesMulti-tiered Model for Speech/Language ServicesWV Policy 2419 Eligibility CriteriaExamples of Severity Rating Scales
17 FEDERAL/STATE REGULATIONS Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA)Federal special education legislationEntitlement for SWDFree appropriate public education (FAPE)Framework for the special education process to provide FAPEProvides federal funding to states for special educationWV State Board Policy 2419: Regulations for the Education of Students with Exceptionalities in WVState special education policyAges 3-21 and gifted studentsSpeech-language ImpairedThe document incorporates both federal and state regulations.SLPs should be familiar with these regulations as they apply to speech-language students.
18 ROLE OF THE SLP IN SCHOOLS GOAL: Maximize the potential of students as communicators within the educational environment.Changing Roles/ResponsibilitiesEmphasize SLPs work with parents, teachers, administrators and othersDespite the changing roles/responsibilities of the SLP throughout the years, improving the communication abilities of students has remained their primary purpose.SLPs work with parents, teachers, administrators and others to assess and treat students with communication disorders as they become 21st Century learners, problem-solvers and decision-makers.The school-based SLPs’ goal is to maximize the potential of their students as communicators within the educational environment and includes the following:A student–centered focus drives team decision-makingComprehensive assessment and thorough evaluation provide information for appropriate eligibility, intervention and dismissal decisions.Intervention focuses on the student’s abilities, rather than disabilities.Intervention plans are consistent with current research and practice. (ASHA, 2000)
19 ROLES/RESPONSIBLITIES: SLP Identification of speech and/or language problemsScreening, appraisal and diagnosisRefer for medical or other professional attentionProvisions of speech and/or language services for the prevention of communication impairmentsCounseling and guidance for parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and/or language impairments.Participate in the county Child Find systemParticipate in SAT teamsAdminister State AssessmentsParticipate in eligibility, evaluation and IEP TeamsIntervention with students with communication disabilitiesCaseload management (scheduling, grouping, service delivery)Facilitate implementation of assistive technologyDocumentationParticipate in Faculty Senate and other school groupsSupervision of speech assistantsOngoing professional developmentMaintain professional certificationAppropriate intervention in literacy models (RTI)List developed from a variety of resources:IDEAPolicy 2419ASHA
20 RESPONSIBILITIES NOT WITHIN ROLE OF SLP Substitute teaching in the general /special education classroom.Teaching English to ESL/ELL students.Primary provider in reading intervention.SLPs are not credentialed as reading teachers but should participate in appropriate literacy interventions as expertise and experience dictates.Primary provider for students with selective mutism (does not preclude collaborative efforts).Provide speech therapy for students who are homeschooled unless determined by school district.SLPs may be assigned school duties/responsibilities as neededduties should not conflict with IEP implementation or professional responsibilities.This list was developed based on questions, concerns , issues that are routinely posed by SLPs, school administrators, teachers and parents.
21 WV SPECIAL EDUCATION PROCESS Outlines the special education process and requirements in West VirginiaFocus on the provision of services to students with speech-language disordersSpecific implementation practices may differ in county school districts
22 IDENTIFICATION: SCREENING CHILD FINDLocate, identify , evaluate SWD ages 3-21Coordinate w/ WV Birth to Three Programs for children ages birth to three yearsSCREENING (Policy 2419 / WV State Code § )Annual screenings: vision, hearing, speech and languageStudents entering preschool/kindergarten/WV public/private schoolsDevelopmental screening upon request of a parent or guardian30 days of the written requestChildren identified through the screening referred for further evaluation. PUBLIC NOTICE REQUIREMENT10 days prior to initiation of screening, provide public notice of the screeninginclude purpose, types and dates of screenings and the means for parents to request their child not participate.
23 IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL Follow up / Re-screening : Responsibilities of SLPRefer for evaluation, if appropriateRefer to SAT, inform parents, refer to an outside agencyResults documented/recorded in a consistent mannerWVEIS procedures (New Screen on WVEIS)“At risk” rescreened as appropriate and results documentedStaff development for teachers : speech-language referralsTeacher friendly materials including , developmental norms, etc. Hearing ScreeningConducted by Audiologists, SLPs, school nurses, other qualified personnelAudiologists meet periodically with the personnelEnsure reliable/valid screening techniques are usedAudiometers appropriately calibrated.
24 IDENTIFICATION: HealthCheck Initiative WV HealthCheck (Kids First) InitiativeMedical home for children in WVIncludes: height, weight, hearing, vision, speech, language, growth and developmentMost children receive wellness exam free of chargeParents/guardians bring the Health Check form to public schools for pre-enrollment eventsHealthCheck and Child Find RequirementsHealth Check is sufficient to meet enrollment requirementsMay suffice for Child Find purposes as indicated in Policy 2419.Collaborate with Health Check medical providersRefer to county HealthCheck proceduresWVDE Contact: Rebecca King“Tools for Schools” HealthCheck Memo
25 IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL Student Assistance Team (SAT)Membership: at least 3 personsschool administrator, current teacher other appropriate professional staffStudent referral by teacher/otherStudents identified during screeningdo not require SATreferred for evaluation by the SLP according to county proceduresPrivate/Religious SchoolsSchool District: Locate, identify , evaluate students suspected of needing special education enrolled in county private schools.provision of special education /related services determined in collaboration with the private/religious schoolSERVICE PLAN - rather than IEP Parent and Other Interested Persons or AgenciesSchool-aged students:county must receive and process written referrals in accordance with SAT processPreschool, home-schooled , private school referralsprocessed directly by special education director or designee.
26 EVALUATION AND REEVALUATION Evaluation TeamResponsible for making decisions regarding a multidisciplinary evaluation and assessmentsEvaluation Procedures and InstrumentsParent required participantConduct with or without holding a meeting.If requested by the parent, a meeting will be held.Variety of assessment tools /strategiesNo single measure or evaluation used as sole criterionTechnically sound instrumentsAssessments and other evaluation materials must beNot discriminatory on a racial or cultural basisProvided and administered in student’s native languagedocument attempts to provide a qualified examinerUsed for purposes for which they are valid and reliableAdministered according to instructionsComprehensive enough to identify all special ed needs
27 EVALUATION AND REEVALUATION Selection and administration of tests for students w/ impaired sensory, manual or speaking skills should be selected accordingly.Accurately reflect student’s abilitiesInclude accommodations, such as assistive technology, etc.ConsentWritten parental consent within 5 school daysSchool/county designates person responsible for documentation /processSLP usually responsible for obtaining consent for speech only referralsEvaluation conducted - EC convened within 80 daysTimeline does not apply when(1) parent fails/refuses to produce student for evaluation(2) student enrolls in another district prior to ECParent fails to respond within 10 school days of the initial requestMail or hand-deliver a second notice.Parent fails to respond –document reasonable measuresParent refuses consent – may use mediation or due process(Unless student is in a parental private placement or home schooled.)
28 EVALUATION AND REEVALUATION Within 3 years of the date of the last ECMore frequently if requested by the parent/educatorExisting data reviewed includingCurrent IEP, therapy logs, evaluations, information provided by the parent; assessments/observationsMay be conducted without holding a meeting - complete Reevaluation Determination FormPrior Written Notice (PWN)Written notice informing parent of district’s proposal /refusal to initiate/change student’s identification, evaluation, educational placement or provision of FAPEProvided within 5 days prior to implementing the proposed action …… unless related to a disciplinary removal which must be on provided on the same day.PWN is provided for:initial evaluation, reevaluation, initial placementnotification of eligibility, IEP amendment,annual IEP revision, age of majority, suspension/expulsion,results of revocation of consent.
29 SPEECH/LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT Conducting a Comprehensive AssessmentAssessment: process of data collection and gathering evidenceEvaluation: brings meaning to data through interpretation and analysisBalanced: Use of standardized and nonstandard assessment measuresStudent-centered, functional, descriptive,How current speech/language skills adversely affect the student’s educational performance. Use and Selection: Norm-Referenced TestsMultiple norm-referenced tests only as accurate as the results of the least accurate test selectedUse of a single, well-validated, reliable measure, normed on a population comparable to that of the target student more effectiveAssessment AdaptationsDisability/other issues may interfere with test administration protocolAdaptations such as enlarging the text or pictures, IntelliKeys, sign languageAny deviation from the standard administration must be reported in the evaluation report.A comprehensive assessment combines standardized (norm-referenced) and non-standardized (descriptive or authentic) assessments to produce a picture of a student’s functional communication abilities and needs as they relate to the educational environment.A case history is essential for gathering information on speech-language development and other factors related to the student’s communication skills. Information gathered from parents and teachers provide valuable insight into the student’s effectiveness in communication
30 ASSESSMENT MEASURES Norm-referenced tests Criterion-referenced measures,Curriculum-based assessment (including developmental scales),Dynamic assessment,Parent, student, teacher interviews and checklistsObservations of the child in the educational environmentCase HistoryReview of student file for case informationWritten language samples,Oral language samplesRatings of intelligibility of speech.Observation in several settings for students for whom there are fluency or pragmatic concernsOral-motor evaluation(
31 ASSESSMENT RESULTS Assessment Adaptations Report should reflect that standard scores, percentiles, etc. could not be used and the test was administered for informational purposes.Any variation from the test directions is a non-standardized administrationMust be clearly stated in the evaluation reportReports from other professionalsAudiological ReportsOT/PT Interpretation of Assessment ComponentsInterpret data to create a picture of a student’s speech-language skillsDo not rely on any one piece of information or assessment source.Identification of strengths and weaknessesFocusing on the classroom as a communication and language-learning environment will enable the SLP to identify how the child uses his/her speech-language skills in instruction, socialization, management, evaluation of knowledge, and literacy. If the student is eligible for speech-language services, this information will be crucial in developing the present levels of performance and goals for the IEP.
32 SPEECH-LANGUAGE REPORT HistoryRecent hearing screeningOral examEvaluation resultsObservationsStrengths/WeaknessesPreferred mode of communication (oral, sign, augmentative communication)Assessment results fully explainedExisting and predicted impact of speech-language impairment on the child’s ability to access and progress in the general education curriculumChild’s emerging abilities may serve as prognostic indicators in determining his/her potential for improvementsRecommendationsSpeech-language Assessment ReportThe purpose of the report is to communicate evaluation findings to the committee so that all team members, including the parents, can meaningfully participate in the eligibility discussion. Therefore, the report should be written in easily understood language without extensive use of professional jargon and should include the following components:
33 ELIGIBILITY EC within 80 days of receipt of consent Membership: parent, administrator or designee, teacher and appropriate personnel with expertise in the areas evaluated.SLP must be included when speech-language evaluations have been conductedFor a speech-only EC meeting, the SLP may act as the administrator designee and the special educator.IDEA: Students progress in the general curriculum.EC determines “child with a disability” - not due to lack of instruction or limited English proficiencyInformation from a variety of sourcesPage 43 – Policy 2419
34 ELIGIBILITY Determine adverse impact on educational performance Disabilities that do not adversely impact the child’s educational performance do not qualify the child for services under IDEA.Speech- language pathology services may be considered as special education or a related serviceWhen more than one exceptionality is presentEC determines primary exceptionality based on adverse impact and progress in the general curriculumPolicy 2419 outlines the specific categorical requirements and criteria for eligibility considerations in WV
35 ELIGIBILITY Three-Prong Test of Eligibility Meets State Eligibility Requirements: (Refer to Policy 2419)Experiences Adverse Effect on Educational PerformanceBased on presence of a disability resulting in need for special education and related services, not on the possible benefit from speech-language services.Document adverse educational impactNeeds Special Education: Specially designed instruction is required to meet needs of the studentIf EC determines that the child is not eligible…Information relevant to instruction provided to the child’s teacher or appropriate committee.
36 ELIGIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS Determination of Adverse ImpactConsideration must be given to the academic, vocational, and social-emotional aspects of the speech-language disability.Preschool Criteria ConsiderationsCase historyAssessment in various environments.Hearing screening for preschoolers is critical due to the high incidence of fluctuating or permanent hearing loss.Consistent nondevelopmental phonemic errors or phonological processesUnintelligibility to significant members of the child’s home and/or school environment.Articulation or phonological processes/patterns that cause significant concerns to the child, which may limit social, emotional, or academic functioning.(ASHA)Academic: Reading, math, and language arts with the impact determined by grades, difficulty with language-based activities, difficulty comprehending orally presented information, and/or difficulty conveying information orally.Social: Communication problem interferes with the ability of others to understand the student, peers teasing the student about his/her speech-language disability, the student having difficulty maintaining and terminating verbal interactions, and/or the student demonstrating his speech-language skills.Vocational: Job-related skills that the student cannot demonstrate due to the speech-language disability including the inability to understand/follow oral directions, inappropriate responses to coworkers’ or supervisors’ comments, and/or the inability to answer and ask questions in a coherent and concise manner.Teacher’s comments provide contextually based information on the student’s speech-language skills and needs in the general curriculum program.Preschoolers - the effect on their ability to participate in appropriate activities.
37 ELIGIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS Students with Significant DisabilitiesBased on individual needs !!Verbal communication not an effective means of communication,Need for an alternative means of communication must be consideredFunctional communication Cognitive ReferencingComparison of IQ scores/language scores to determine eligibilityInconsistent with IDEA’s requirement to determine services based on individual needs (ASHA, 2000).Speech-Language Severity Rating Scales (SRS)Tools for describing the severity of a speech-language impairment, communicating with eligibility and IEP team members, and providing consistency (refer to Appendix). Professional JudgmentSpeech-Language Severity Rating Scales (examples in Appendix)Speech-language Severity Rating Scales (SRS) are designed to describe the severity of a communication disorder, based on assessment using multiple measures, considering multiple aspects of communication. SRS are valuable tools for describing the severity of a speech-language impairment, communicating with eligibility and IEP team members, and providing consistency among SLPs.Attainment of a certain point value on a severity rating does not guarantee eligibility for special education rather; it describes the results of the speech-language assessment in consistent terms. The EC considers the severity rating in conjunction with other information as the team determines eligibility. A particular severity rating does not specify or predict a certain level of service. The level of service is determined by the IEP team.
38 INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM Special education/related services necessary to meet the unique educational needs of studentRequired membership in Policy 2419 – within 30 daysSLP on team for any child with a speech-language impairmentSpecial considerations: Policy 2419Present Level of Performance (PLEP)Foundation for IEP - Identifies strengths and weaknesses.Describes how student’s speech-language impairment affects involvement/progress in the general curriculumPerformance in academic/functional areas.Written in language understandable to allTest scores self-explanatory or an explanation included.Sources of information: formal tests, informal tests, observations, anecdotal reports, curriculum-based assessments, interviews, and checklistsPreschool students:Include how speech-language impairment affects participation in appropriate activities
39 INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM Annual GoalsMeasurable goals developed from PLEPSDesigned to meet speech-language needs and enable progress in general curriculum (or in age appropriate activities for preschool children).What do we want the child to be able to do in a year?Include timeframe, condition, behavior and the evaluation procedure with performance criteria. WV Alternate Performance Task Assessment (APTA)Each goal must have at least two benchmarks/objectivesAccess to General CurriculumSLP must have a understanding of the WV CSOsidentify effect of any speech-language disorder on student’s academic performance,become familiar with the grade-level curricula developedintegrate their services with the general education curriculum.Instructional materials used by the student provide the best source of materials for school-based SLPs
40 INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM TransitionConsidered for all students including students who have a speech-language impairment. (age 16)IEP Team discuss the child’s goals and how he/she will prepare for adult life.ServicesCompleted after goals writtenBased on student needs to meet annual goals and progress in the general curriculum,Related services; supplementary aids and services for student, or those provided by school personnel on behalf of student;Program modifications in instruction and assessment.Beginning and ending dates, frequency, location, and duration of services; extent of participation in general education
41 INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM State AssessmentCompleted for all children enrolled in a grade level requiring an assessmentAccommodations same as those used in instruction and assessment during the yearReporting ProgressFollow local procedures and timelines for reporting progress.Progress must be reported for each annual goal as indicated in the student’s IEP.IEP Reviewed AnnuallyONLINE IEPPurpose: guide instruction and increase the capacity of special /general educators to provide more effective instruction for students with disabilities.Decision making process aligned to the WV CSOs.
42 DISMISSAL Responsibility of the eligibility committee (Policy 2419) Unless Speech is related service – then IEPConsiderations for Dismissal:Student met IEP goals.Parent submits written request to exit student from service.Within 5 days – provide PWN to parent and cease services.Intervention no longer results in measurable benefits,Student unwilling or unmotivated to participate in therapy.Extenuating circumstances such as medical, dental, social, etc.Disorder no longer has an adverse affect on educational performance.No longer needs special education or related services to participate in the general curriculum.
43 DISMISSALEC team reviews existing data collected from a variety of methodsPerformance data collected during sessionsFormal/informal assessmentsTeacher observation/reportsParental reports of performance outside the school environmentStudent self-reportingParent does not agree with the recommendation for dismissal given PWN – services cease.DOCUMENTATION!!
44 CASELOAD Caseload size not mandated by federal regulations Determined by stateWV maximum caseload of 50 students for SLPsIncludes all students eligible for special education/related services (duplicated and unduplicated).Caseload maximum should be lower for part-time personnel or persons assigned other responsibilities in proportion to the amount of time spent as a service provider such as:SLPs supervising speech assistantsLead SLPs who have administrative responsibilitiesSLPs assigned preschool or severe populations that require additional time for technology and classroom consultationSLPs responsible for phonological awareness intervention
45 CASELOAD (refer to Policy 2419, chapter 6, section 4-B.) Travel time MUST be considered when caseloads and extra duty assignments are determined.(refer to Policy 2419, chapter 6, section 4-B.)Waivers to maximum limits may be requested in writingMay require on-site visit, will be considered on a case-by-case basis and remain valid for the current school year onlyWaivers should only be considered in the most extreme situations when other options are not available and will not be issued without documented justification.
46 SERVICE DELIVERYEffective service delivery is dynamic and changes with the needs of the students.Services provided directly to the student or indirectly through consultationIEP team makes decision about the type and amount of direct and indirect servicesDecisions based upon PLEPS progress made in services received to date, assessment results, IEP goals, and any objectives/benchmarks. Collaboration with parents, general educators, special educators, and other service providers. Direct ServicesPull-Out TherapyIntegrated TherapyIndividualized service in a less restrictive setting – student not removed from classroomSLP has exposure to classroom communication including: levels of adult and child communication ,daily routines, language of the curriculum, vocabulary demands, and the student’s coping strategies.General/special education teacher and SLP jointly plan, teach, and assess progress within the classroom setting.
47 SERVICE DELIVERY Indirect Services or Consultative Provided when IEP specifies support for school personnel on behalf of the studentProviding information/demonstrating effective instructional and facilitation proceduresAnalyze, adapt, modify, and create instructional materials /assistive technology for targeted studentsMonitor the student’s progressConsultative services may be provided to family membersCommunity-Based InstructionFacilitates the development of skills that are required for success in life.Opportunities to practice daily living /work skills in a community settingSLP may participate in generalization of skills or provide consultation to teachers
48 SERVICE DELIVERY PRESCHOOL STUDENTS Consider student’s preschool environmentExtent communication needs will be metPrior to “pulling-out” preschool students , collaborate with the PreK teacher regarding the most appropriate interventionStrong language based interventions in the class implemented daily provide an opportunity for students with delayed language skills to acquire these skillsSLP and teacher observe and monitor the student’s progress to determine if a referral for more intense intervention is needed. Homebound StudentsFollow County ProceduresHome Schooled Students
49 STUDENTS with SIGNIFICANT DISABILITIES Should be based on individual needs of studentsFunctional Communication IN the Educational EnvironmentExpected communication outcomesIncreased access to learning and greater independence and participation in home, school, work, and community.InterventionInclude assistive technology, environmental modifications and instruction of communication partners.Limited use of “Pull-Out” Model for service deliveryInterdisciplinary team should offer services and supportsParent Consultation
50 SCHEDULING Flexible approach to service delivery Minutes of therapy reflected per month, rather than per weekProvision of intense services early in the year, with the amount of time reduced later in the yearScheduling students on a monthly basis SLPs must always provide the total amount of service written on the IEPUse of a range is not considered acceptableService provider and the parents may view the expected time requirements differently.SLPs and their administrators of special education should work together to discuss new scheduling formats prior to implementation.Make-up Therapy OSEP LetterCreating a schedule that meets the needs of individual students as well as allowing time for other responsibilities is a challenge.SLPs can increase the effectiveness of their program and have greater control over their schedules if a flexible approach to service delivery is maintained.When IEPs are written appropriately, frequency, duration, and setting can provide built-in flexibility for SLPsProvision of the same frequency and duration to each student violates the requirement that services be individualized and leaves little room for flexibility and creativity within a SLPs schedule.SLPs must always provide the total amount of service written on the IEP, regardless of the wording of the frequency and duration statement. Use of a range is typically not considered acceptable because the service provider and the parents may view the expected time requirements differently.
51 FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING OPTIONS Provision of intense services early in the year, with the amount of time reduced later in the year. This approach can be used to teach a new skill and give the child time to master without long periods of time between therapy sessions. (5 minutes kids)Scheduling students on a monthly basis may be most useful for students who are monitoring their own performance and need periodic opportunities to check in with the SLP to gauge their progress prior to dismissal.Flexibility in service delivery can be built into IEPs and the SLPs ’s schedule in a variety of ways. Minutes of therapy should be reflected per month, rather than per week. In addition to accommodating student and classroom needs, this SLP is better able to capitalize on opportunities to integrate services in the classroom or during school events and to reschedule sessions to accommodate absences. This type of frequency and duration statement allows the SLP scheduling options that can change to meet the students’ needs. SLPs and their administrators of special education should work together to discuss new scheduling formats prior to implementationWhatever the type of scheduling option used, it should be clearly documented in the student’s IEP and include dates, frequency and duration statements. If the student’s speech or language needs change, the IEP team needs to reconvene to make appropriate adjustment.
52 FOR ALL SERVICE DELIVERY MODELS, IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT TIME BE MADE AVAILABLE IN THE WEEKLY SCHEDULE FOR COLLABORATION and CONSULTATION WITH PARENTS, GENERAL EDUCATORS, SPECIAL EDUCATORS, AND OTHER SERVICE PROVIDERS.
53 MANAGEMENT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)Assessment conducted by a team: audiologist, SLP, classroom teacher and othersServices on an individual basis and the educational significance of the APDProcessing speech in a noisy background; Attention and distractibility problems;Slow, delayed responses to verbal stimuli; Auditory MemoryBehavior; Language delays SLP liaison among the teacher, audiologist, parent and others in determining and implementing the most appropriate intervention plan within the school setting.APD is NOT a disability category under IDEA.Autism: Role of SLPTeam member working with students diagnosed with autism.Specialized instruction may be direct, indirect or a combination of these based upon the communication needs of the identified student.SLP functions as liaison among the teacher(s), classroom support personnel, parent, and others in determining and implementing the most appropriate communication system within the school setting
54 MANAGEMENT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) : Motor speech disorder.Assessment/diagnosis of CAS is often very difficultTherapyIntensive, individual, and frequent therapy is more successfulFocus on improving the planning, sequencing, and coordination of muscle movementsSign language or an augmentative and alternative communication system.Cochlear Implant: Role of SLPEvaluate child's spoken or signed communication abilitiesMake recommendations for intervention.Speech therapy approaches include: auditory/oral, auditory/verbal, cued speech and total communicationDetermine appropriate strategy is a decision that must be made by professionals in collaboration with the family and supported by the child's school and home environmentsSTUDENTS WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTSDue to advancements in technology, schools have experienced an increase in the number of children entering school with cochlear implants. SLPs play a critical role on the team of professionals facilitating educational planning for these students. The SLP will evaluate the child's spoken or signed communication abilities and make recommendations for intervention.The speech and language development of children who receive cochlear implants is much different from other children. Many factors must be considered when planning intervention including the age of child, preferred communication style, hearing history, learning style and family support. Speech therapy approaches include auditory/oral, auditory/verbal, cued speech and total communication and determining the appropriate strategy is a decision that must be made by professionals in collaboration with the family and supported by the child's school and home environments.
55 MANAGEMENT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS Deaf/Hard of Hearing: Role of the SLPCollaborates with teacher of the deaf and others to optimize each child's potentialWork with the audiologist/teacher of the deaf to ensure settings are appropriate for the child’s hearing and be proficient in trouble-shooting simple problemsSchool-based person who works with FM auditory trainers or other sensory devices.If the SLP is not fluent in sign language when working with a student who uses manual communication, the use of an interpreter will be neededDysphagiaIDEA/Section 504 mandate services for health-related disorders that affect the ability of the student to access educational programs and participate fully. Team approach in treatment of students : SLP, OT, PT, School Nurse, Child’s Teacher, Child nutrition representative, Cafeteria manager ,Parent, Building administrator SLPs must have the appropriate skills needed to provide feeding/swallowing servicesLack in experience and expertise may result in harm to the student.It may be necessary for the school district to contract with a person outside of the school district that has the expertise to work with the student and/or provide training for the SLP(see ASHA document” Guidelines for Speech-language Pathologists Providing Feeding and Swallowing services in the schools” )Deaf/Hard of HearingSLPS are part of a team of professionals working with students who are deaf and hard of hearing. The SLP should work in collaboration with the teacher of the deaf and others to optimize each child's potential. This collaboration requires (1) an understanding and respect for the unique background, educational preparation, knowledge, skills, and experience of participating professionals; (2) a recognition and appreciation of the shared knowledge, expertise, and responsibilities of the professionals; and (3) a consideration of programming and service delivery systems that stimulate the development of interpersonal communication skills and literacy (ASHA)If the SLP is not fluent in sign language when working with a student who uses manual communication, the use of an interpreter will be needed to ensure the accuracy of communication. Frequently, the SLP will be the school-based person who works with classroom teachers when students are using FM auditory trainers or other sensory devices. The SLP should work closely with the audiologist and teacher of the deaf to ensure that the settings are appropriate for the child’s hearing and be proficient in trouble-shooting simple problems.
56 MANAGEMENT OF SPECIAL POPULATIONS ELL (English Language Learners) StudentsSLPs should not provide direct instruction in ESLCollaborate with ESL instructors to identify students with disabilitiesChallenge for SLPs: Distinguishing communication differences related to linguistic or cultural factors from communication disorders.
57 PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Special Topics Assistive Technology (Definitions in Glossary)Meet educational needs of children w/ communication disordersConsidered for all students going through the special education processSLP Role: Facilitating access to assistive technologyIEP Team ResponsibilitiesDetermine if an AT necessary for student to meet educational needs/receive FAPERequired as part of special education, related services, or supplementary aids and Describe full extent of devices and services(s) as well as the amount of such services(s)Not conditional on lack of funding.IEP should describe the required features of the device needed to meet the student’s needs rather that specific name of a deviceHome use
58 WV EARLY CHILDHOOD SYSTEM WV BIRTH TO THREE PROGRAMServes Children with Disabilities Birth to ThreeResponsible for Contacting LEADeveloping Transition Plan Universal PreK WV State Board of Education Policy 2525PreK system in WV for all four year olds and 3 year olds with IEPsFull implementation by all school districts is required by 2012SLPs: Universal PreKIdentified PreK students may be served in Universal PreK classrooms.PreK students with an IEP must be entered into the data system including students that receive speech therapySLP enters data on SPEECH ONLY students who are not in WV-Pre-k classrooms
59 LITERACY: Role of the SLP Spoken language provides foundation for reading/writingChildren with CD often exhibit academic problems SLPs have specialized knowledge /experience to build critical language/literacy skills.Relationship between early spoken language/early pre-literacy abilitiesAddress difficulties involving phonological awareness memory and retrieval;Teach children to use tactile--kinesthetic and auditory cues in reading and writingAnalyze language demands of textbooks, academic talk and curriculum Serve on school teams addressing strategies to enhance literacyProvide direct services to children with oral language disabilitiesCollaboration with other educators SLP's contribute in the areas of:PreventionIdentifying At-Risk ChildrenAssessingProviding InterventionDocumenting OutcomesProgram DevelopmentAdvocating for Effective Literacy Practices(ASHA’s Literacy Gateway)Spoken language provides the foundation for the development of reading and writing.Spoken and written language share a reciprocal relationship, building on each other to result in general language and literacy competence.Students who have problems with spoken language frequently experience difficulties learning to read and write and students with reading and writing problems often experience difficulties using language to communicate, think and learn.Research shows that children with communication disorders may perform at a poor or insufficient academic level, struggle with reading, and have difficulty understanding and expressing language.SLPs have the specialized knowledge and experience needed to identify communication problems and to provide the help that children need to build critical language and literacy skills. SLPs are often the first professionals to identify the root cause of reading and writing problems through a child's difficulty with language. SLPs help children to build the skills they need to succeed in school and in life. Key elements of a SLP’s academic training relating to early language and literacy development include skills to:Build and reinforce relationships between early spoken language and early pre-literacy abilities and consider influences of parent-child interactions in early shared storybook interactionsAddress difficulties involving phonological awareness memory and retrieval;Teach children to use tactile--kinesthetic and auditory cues in reading and writingAnalyze how the language demands of textbooks, academic talk and curriculum may stress a student’s capabilities at different age and grade levels; and
60 RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION Process of academic support for ALL students through tiered instruction, progress monitoring, and appropriate interventionProcess to gather data prior to determining eligibility for SLD Role of SLP in RTI : Participant in the literacy efforts of a community.ASHA: Supports the role of SLPs through policies on literacy, workload, and expanded roles and responsibilities.Not as primary instructor but resource for schools /interventionist when appropriate.Provide documentation to the EC for SLD students receiving speech/language services.WVDE Phonological Awareness ProjectIncrease student achievement by emphasizing the importance of phonemic awareness as an early teachable reading skill.Focus on early literacy skills at the first grade and kindergarten levelsSLPs implement IPAP (Tier 2 Intervention)
61 SPECIAL TOPICS………. Section 504 (Rehabilitation Act of 1973) Medicaid State-federal program provides funding to counties based on low-income and students with disabilitiesSLPs are eligible for certification as individual Medicaid providersContact county boards of education or RESAs to obtain information regarding provider status Section 504 (Rehabilitation Act of 1973)Protects the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities, including schools, that receive federal fundsNot part of IDEA - no additional fundingGeneral education mandate, but often confused with special educationEach school district has procedures for maintaining compliance under Section 504 and developing 504 plans for studentsSLPs should follow their school district’s procedureA Section 504 coordinator has been identified in all school systems, and should be contacted for questions or information
62 IMPLEMENTING SCHOOL PROGRAM Personnel (Professional Support Staff)SLP QualificationsRecruitment/Retention of PersonnelAdvertiseWVDE Job Bank/ASHA Journals/WVSHA websiteOffer IncentivesSalary SupplementsPay Expenses to National/State ConferencesMoving Expenses(Brochure)National Board CertificationWV recognizes professional certificationSLPs must apply for the salary supplement through the WVDE, Office of Personnel Preparation
63 IMPLEMENTING SCHOOL PROGRAMS Use of Speech AssistantsSupervised by certified SLPAuthorization for 1 year from the WVDE/ Bachelor’s degree in speech pathology or communication disordersNot eligible to be Medicaid providers.Refer to “Guidelines for Speech Assistants” document for additional informationContracted ServicesWV State Board Policy 5202 addressed the credentials of contracted employeesTelepractice (Telespeech or Teletherapy)Innovative approach: Uses real-time, two-way interactive teleconferencing to deliver speech therapy services in rural settings. WVDE has collaborated with LinguaCare Associates, Inc
64 COORDINATION: SCHOOL BASED PROGRAMS Lack of consistency across countiesProgram coordination suggestions:Lead Therapist: To facilitate communication among county SLPsPlanning time and CommunicationIdentify a county-wide battery of tests to be used for assessmentsConsistent forms to maintain log of therapy sessions, document student progress, speech report, etc.Develop county-wide guidelines to outline county specific procedures for the delivery of speech/language services (screening procedures, materials, test instruments, etc )Facilities: ResourcesWVDE Policy/ ASHA Guidelines
65 REFERENCES/APPENDICES A. GLOSSARYB. ACRONYMSC. ONLINE RESOURCESAssistive TechnologyCochlear ImplantLiteracyProgram ImplementationStudents with Significant DisabilitiesWV Birth to Three ProgramWVDE ResourcesD. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION:A Multi-tiered Model of Service DeliveryE. WV POLICY 2419: SPEECH-LANGUAGE CRITERIAF. EXAMPLES OF SEVERITY RATING SCALESAdapted from Maine Department of Education
66 MULTI-TIERED MODEL FOR SPEECH-LANGUAGE SERVICES RTI model: Students with speech-language impairmentsNational attention;Growing caseloads, increased paperwork and low dismissal rates,New approach to providing effective, efficient servicesTraditional approaches often result in students enrolled in programs for long periods of time without making significant progress Significant time and burdensome paperwork to navigate the special education system for a young child with a mild speech disorder that may correct without intervention.SLPs provide intervention within the general education environment with the educator, parent and the student prior to referral for special educationObserve the speech and language skills to determine if a disorder is present that requires referral for special educationThe RTI model has unique implications for students with speech-language impairments and is being imTraditional approaches to speech therapy often result in students being enrolled in programs for long periods of time without making significant progress.SLPs must dedicate significant time and maintain burdensome paperwork to navigate the special education system for a young child with a mild speech disorder that may correct without intervention.This model allows the SLPs to provide speech/language intervention within the general education environment with the educator, parent and the student prior to referral for special education.The student has the opportunity acquire age appropriate speech and/or language skills in a regular education environment.The SLPs and teacher have the opportunity to observe the child’s speech and language skills to determine if a disorder is present that requires referral for special education. In this model, students in Tier 1 and Tier 2 do not have an IEP.
68 RTI MODEL: Speech/language Services NOT A MANDATED PROGRAM!Students selected for this intervention are those with mild articulation and language delays.Students with significant speech and language issues must be referred and evaluated immediately.Students identified for Tier 1 and 2 do not have IEPs.Targeted students not be referred for special education until Tier 3.SLP responsible for implementing the special education process.Parent Involvement IS KEY!!!
69 NEXT STEPS Disseminate Guidelines WVSHAAvailable on Website:RESA WorkshopsSpecial Ed Directors/ SLPSPECIAL EDUCATION LEADERSHIP CONFERENCEApril 11-13, 2011AIR PROJECT“Step-up” to SpeechPost Power Point on Web SiteResourcesRTI in ActionASHA: Roles and Responsibilities of Speech-language Pathologists in Schools
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