Presentation on theme: "Food biotechnology is the use of technological innovations in manipulating food production and processing. Food science is the study of substances humans."— Presentation transcript:
Food biotechnology is the use of technological innovations in manipulating food production and processing. Food science is the study of substances humans eat. Includes food make-up, nutritional content, and ways of making food more available and appealing. Food chemistry is the study of the substances that makes up foods.
A nutrient is a substance in food that supports life processes. The major food nutrients are proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Food physics is the study of the physical characteristics of food. Water can be added to food, removed from food, or the state of the water can be changed. Osmosis is the flow of water from places of higher to lower concentrations. Removing water from food also helps prevent decay.
Food biotechnology focuses on the characteristics of living organisms and their products that are used for food. Food from plant sources proved 80% of the protein and 88% of the calories in the human diet. Food from animal sources are less important worldwide, though more important in the US.
The average amount of food consumed by each individual in a year is known as per capita consumption. Food quality is the ability of a food to meet nutritional needs. Food processing is the preparation of food materials for consumption. Food preservation consists of canning, freezing, refrigerating, dying, pickling, and salting. Spoilage is a condition that makes food unsafe to eat. The appearances, texture, odor, and flavors of food change.
Microorganisms can grow in or on food. Insects - damage food products Chemical contamination - food with residues and chemicals Purity - food being mixed with other foods Undesirable growth - foods that sprout Shelf life is the length of time that a food can be sold and is safe to eat.
Food microbiology deals with microorganisms that are present in or on food. It is the study of microbes and how they affect food. Most important microbes are molds, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses. Harmful microbes are those that cause food to decay and become unfit for human consumption. Food-borne illness - disease that people get from food they eat Two major types: infection and intoxication Botulism is the most widely known food toxin. It is caused by the Clostridium botulism bacterium.
Catalysis - the alteration of the rate at which chemical reactions occur EX: ripening of fruit An enzyme is a protein substance produced by living cells. Enzymes comprise a group of proteins that regulate organism growth and life processes. Enzymes act as catalysts in chemical changes in cells. Enzymes require substrate molecules to work.
Substrate - substance on which a specific enzyme reacts Substrates are consumed by microbes when food decays. Different enzymes cause different changes in foods. Food processing - preparing foods for consumption It includes preservation. Preservation - treating food in some way so it doesnt spoil Spoilage - condition in which food is unsafe to eat