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Slaughter Process wIwImmobilization wAwAnimal is rendered unconscious wdwdoes not feel pain
Kosher Slaughter wawanimal is slaughtered under the regulations of the Jewish religion wawanimals slaughtered for Kosher markets do not have to be stunned.
Methods wCwCarbon dioxide chamber wewelectric shock wcwcartridge or mechanical bolt
Immobilization wawallows the heart to pump in order to drain the animals body of blood
Exsanguination wpwprocess of bleeding the animal wuwusually done by severing the jugular vein with a sharp knife
wbwbleeding must be done quickly to avoid hemorrhaging whwhemorrhaging can cause blood spots in the meat
Hemorrhage wewescape of blood from ruptured blood vessels wcwcaused by a rise in blood pressure
Hide and organs removed wlwliver wbwbrains wpwpancreas wiwintestines whwheart and kidneys
In the US wtwthere are over 5000 plants that slaughter animals
Hogs waware dipped into scalding water and placed on a machine that scrapes the hair from the hide wswsome plants may skin hogs
Organs used for food wlwliver - most common wbwbrains, pancreas, intestines, and heart wkwkidneys may also be used for human consumption
Inspectors waware present to inspect carcass and internal organs wdwdetect any health concerns
wiwif a problem is found with the carcass, the entire carcass may be condemned weweach carcass to be sold must be inspected
Cooling wcwcarcasses may be wrapped in a shroud wcwcarcass goes through rigor mortis wcwcarcass may be aged
wbwbeef carcasses are split down the middle wswsides of beef are created by sawing down the backbone
Carcasses wmwmay be divided into quarters by cutting each side in two pieces. wSwSides are divided at the 12th and 13th rib to form quarters
wlwlamb carcasses are usually sent to the cooler whole as they are much smaller whwhog carcasses are split into sides by cutting down the backbone.
wbwbeef and hog carcasses that have been skinned are covered in a heavy cloth soaked in salt water wcwcalled a shroud
Shroud wpwprevents the carcass from drying out
Carcasses waware cooled down rapidly wgwgo through rigor mortis wmwmuscles lock into place and carcass becomes stiff
Rigor Mortis wpwphysiology is similar to muscle contractions in live animals wcwcarcass muscles do not relax
wowonset usually takes 6 - 12 hours for beef and lamb w3w30 minutes - 3 hours for pork
wawas enzymes and microorganisms begin to break down the muscle tissue, rigor mortis is partially relaxed
Cooling wQwQuick cooling of meat is important to minimize protein degradation wiwinhibit growth of microorganisms
Pork and Lamb wcwcarcasses are usually cooled for 18-24 hours before cutting
Beef wcwcooled for 30 or more hours before cutting into wholesale cuts wmwmay also be aged in the cooler for as much as a week
Aging wcwcarcasses undergo a period of aging to allow enzymes and microoganims to begin the process of breaking down the tissue
wiwimproves tenderness and flavor wawadds to the expense of processing meat
Aging alternatives wewelectric stimulation of muscles wcwcurrent of 600 volts is sent through the carcass right after slaughter and before the hide is removed
wswstimulation speeds natural processes that occur after death wdwdepletion of energy stores from the body
Electric stimulation wiwimproves tenderness wiwimprove color, texture and firmness wmwmakes hide removal easier
Grading wcwcarcasses are graded according to USDA standards wfwfederal meat grading was established in 1925
wawadministered by the AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service) of the USDA
Grade wcwcertifies class, quality and condition with uniform standards
Quality grades wpwprediction of the eating quality (palatability) of the meat when properly prepared
Yield Grades wiwindicate expected yield of edible meat from a carcass and the subsequent wholesale cuts from that carcass
Grading wiwis voluntary and is paid for by the packer
Quality Beef Grades wpwprime wcwchoice wswselect wswstandard wcwcommercial
wuwutility wcwcutter wcwcanner
Grades waware determined by the age of the animal wawamount of fat intermingled with the muscle
Age wdwdetermined by maturity of the cartilage and bones wcwcartilage hardens and turns to bone as the animal ages
wgwgraders inspect the rib cage and vertebrae for the degree of bone and cartilage hardening - ossification
wawas the animal ages, vertebrae in the lower end of backbone tend to fuse or grow together. wAwAnimals older than about 42 months cannot receive the highest two grades
wywyounger animals are usually more tender than older animals
Fat wfwfat, known as marbling wswshows up as specks of white across the rib eye wmwmore specks of fat that are visible, the higher the grade
Prime whwhas the highest degree of fat in the muscle wfwfat gives meat its flavor and juiciness
wfwfat is expensive to put on animals wlwleaner grades are less expensive
Feedlot operators want their animals to grade low choice at slaughter wtwthose raising prime animals usually cater to the restaurant trade
Beef wmwmost beef bought in the grocery store is choice grade. wAwA few market chains are selling the leaner select grade as a low fat meat
Yield Grade wewestimate of the percentage of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts that come from the major lean primal cuts
Beef Yield grades w1w1 over 52.3 % lean primal cuts w2w2 50 - 52.3% w3w3 47.7-50.0 w4w4 45.4-47.7% w5w5 less than 45.4%
Wholesale cuts wPwPrimal cuts wbwbeef wcwchuck, loin, rib and round
wpwpork wswshoulder, loin, sides and ham
wlwlamb wswshoulder, rib, loin, and leg
Retail cuts wpwprimal cuts are divided into retail cuts wcwcuts of meat that the consumer buys at the grocery store
wswsized into portions that can be easily cooked and eaten without further cutting or trimming
Retail Cuts wmwmost expensive usually come from the loin area wmwmost tender of the muscle groups wcwchops and steaks such as the T Bone
Trimmings waware made into sausage or ground meat wswsausage is spiced and preserved by drying or smoking
Palatability whwhow food appeals to the palate - taste wdwdepends upon: appearance, aroma, flavor, tenderness, and juiciness
wdwdepends upon the combination of qualities and the way it is cooked
Appearance wbwbeef, pork and lamb vary in the shades of red color wdwdarker meats are associated with either a lack of freshness or meat from older animals
wbwbright red gives the appearance of being fresh and wholesome
Fat wtwthat is yellow instead of creamy white is less appealing to consumers wywyellow fat is found in certain breeds of animals that are unable to convert carotene
wgwgrain fed cattle generally have white fat and considered to taste better than grass fed beef wgwgrass fed may have yellow fat
Tenderness wcwcomponents of muscle that contribute to tenderness: wcwconnective tissue, state of muscle fibers, amounts of adipose (fat ) tissue
Connective tissue wcwconnects various parts of the body wiwis distributed throughout the body
Collagen wmwmost abundant protein the animal wmwmore activity - more collagen wawas the animal ages, collagen becomes less soluble
Elastin wewelastic like protein found throughout the ligaments, arterial walls, and organ structures wfwfibers are easily stretched, unaffected by cooking
Fresh Meats wWwWhen selecting, avoid extremes in apparent juiciness
Flavor changes wowoften occur after extended storage wcwchemical breakdown of nucleotides give a desirable aged flavor
wOwOxidation of fats results in a rancid flavor and a sharp unpleasant aroma
Preservation and Storage wmwmeat is highly perishable wswspoils quickly wcwcreate conditions that are unfavorable to growth of spoilage organisms
wdwdrying wswsmoking wswsalting wrwrefrigeration
wfwfreezing wcwcanning wfwfreeze-drying
wmwmeat provides an ideal environment for microbial growth wmwmolds wywyeast wbwbacteria
Molds wmwmulticellular, multicolored organisms whwhave fuzzy, mildew-like appearance
wswspread by spores that float in the air or transported by contact with objects
Yeasts wlwlarge, unicellular bud and spore forms wswspread by contact or in air currents
wmwmost colonies are white to creamy in color wuwusually moist or slimy in appearance or to the touch
Microbial growth wawaffected by temperature wmwmoisture wowoxygen wpwpH physical form of the meat
Temperature wcwcan influence the rate and kind of microbial growth
Psychrophiles wgwgrow in cooler temperatures w3w32-68 degrees F
Thermophiles wgwgrow best in warmer temperatures w4w45-65 degrees F
Mesophiles wgwgrowth optimum between psycros and thermos
Microbes wtwtemperatures below 40 degrees F greatly retard the growth of spoilage microbes and prevent growth of pathogens
Moisture wgwgreatly affect the growth of certain microbes wmwmust have moisture to reproduce
Oxygen wawavailability determines the type of microbe that grows wawaerobic - require free oxygen wawanaerobic - grow in the absence of oxygen
wfwfacultative - grow with or without free oxygen wvwvacuum packaging helps to inhibit growth of aerobic organisms
pH wowoptimum pH for most microbes is near neutral (pH 7) wMwMolds - 2.0 - 8.0 wYwYeasts 4.0 - 4.5
wbwbacteria 5.2 - 7.0 wmwmeat and meat by products range from 4.8 - 6.8 wmwmeat conditions favor the growth of molds, yeast and acidolphilic bacteria
Curing and Smoking wdwdocumented as far back as 850 B.C. by the Chinese wswsmoking and salting (curing) only methods of preservation known
wiwimparts a particular flavor wfwfew people in the US still rely on curing and smoking to preserve meat
wswsalt and nitrite - two main ingredients wswsugar, ascorbate, erythorbate, phosphates, and delta gluconolactone
wswsalt is used in amounts to give flavor as opposed to amounts needed to preserve the meat
wnwnitrates used to impart the cured color and flavor and inhibit bacteria action wcwcannot ammount to more than 120 ppm
wowoldest method is dry curing wcwcure ingredients are rubbed onto surface of meat
wiwinjection curing wpwpump curing solution (brine) into meat wswshortens curing time
wcwcombination curing wdwdry curing and injection curing
Refrigeration wfwfresh meat, under home refrigeration conditions should be consumed within four days of purchase
Freezing wbwblast freezing - use high velocity air and temps af -10 C to -40 C wfwfreezes meat very quickly
wlwlength of time meat can be kept frozen depends on temperature, species, type of product and the wrapping material on the product
wrap using vapor proof materials wkwkeep oxygen out and moisture in wmwmoisture loss causes freezer burn
wbwbeef - 6-12 months wlwlamb - 6-9 months wpwpork - 4-6 months wcwcured meats - 1-2 months
Drying wlwlow moisture foods contain less than 25% moisture wBwBeef Jerky is an example of a low moisture food
wiwintermediate moisture less than 50% wdwdry salami
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