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Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 96 Chapter 5: Stages and Strategies.

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Presentation on theme: "Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 96 Chapter 5: Stages and Strategies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 96 Chapter 5: Stages and Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

2 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 97 Key Points Second language acquisition is a complex process. Children move through four stages of second language acquisition: home language, observational/listening, telegraphic/formulaic, and fluid language use. A child may appear to be in one or more of the four stages at any given point in time depending on a number of factors.

3 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 98 Key Points (continued) Language development and learning are shaped by childrens experiences. Remember to celebrate childrens attempts at using a new language, and at the same time, model correct grammar and vocabulary in English.

4 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter 5 99 Connections to Principles and Practices Principle 4. Language development and learning are promoted when preschool teachers and children creatively and interactively use language.

5 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Connections to Principles and Practices Principle 5. Experimenting with the use, form, purpose, and intent of the first and second languages leads to growth in acquiring the second language.

6 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Connections to Principles and Practices Principle 6. Continued use and development of the childs home language will benefit the child as he or she acquires English.

7 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Definitions: Language Learning Second language acquisition is the process that a child goes through in learning more than one language. Learning to understand and use language is a gradual and ongoing process that begins at birth and continues through the early childhood years and beyond.

8 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Second Language Acquisition Process The four stages listed below parallel the process of first language acquisition: – Home language stage – Observational/listening stage – Telegraphic/formulaic speech stage – Fluid language use stage

9 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Home Language Stage When a child finds herself in a context where language other than the home language is spoken, she may use the home language with others, especially with other children, even if they speak a different language. Eventually speaks home language only with others who use it or stops using it.

10 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Observational/Listening Stage Usually follows home language stage. Observes what others do, how they behave in certain settings, and when they speak. Tries to connect what is said with what is happening. Child may choose to be quiet. In home language environment, child is usually quite verbal.

11 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Telegraphic/Formulaic Speech Stage Child uses a few content or function words (e.g. Daddy shoe or Sara eat) Child relies on familiar or repetitive chunks or formulas, for example: –Go __, (Go up or Go mommy) –Gimme ____, (Gimme book or Gimme juice)

12 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Fluid Language Use Demonstrates understanding of rules of the English language. Uses new language more creatively. Begins to approximate native speaker. Social English and academic English are features of this stage.

13 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Allow Trial and Error Speech Celebrate a childs attempts in using a new language. Remember mistakes in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar are really how a child experiments with sounds, as well as other components of the new language. Serve as an English language model; repeat with correct grammar and vocabulary.

14 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Snapshots of Students Number off from 1-3. Reconvene in number-alike groups. Refer to Handout 5A: Descriptions of the Stages of Second Language Acquisition. Use the snapshot that corresponds to your number.

15 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Vivianas home language is Spanish and she is learning English as a second language at her preschool. A recorder was used to capture her language on tape and then transcribed for this documentation. Description: In the dramatic play area, Viviana put on the doctor coat and put the stethoscope around her neck. Then she went to the block area where the teacher was sitting next to Phillip. She put the stethoscope on the teachers chest. T:Hi Viviana, Doctor Vivi. How are you doing?... What are you doing? V:I doctor baby. T:Doctor baby. (Viviana points to recorder next to teacher.) T:Thats my recorder…its going to record what we are talking about. V:No work? T:It works. V:Works! T:See it turning around. V:Around. Snapshot 1: Viviana, Age 4 Viviana and her teacher

16 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Phillips home languages are Spanish, Armenian and English. A recorder was used to capture his language on tape and then transcribed for this documentation. Description: Phillip is playing in the block area with a few children and the teacher. He is building a block structure and playing with toy dinosaur figures. Ph:Heh, heh! (Blocks can be heard falling. Phillip pushes the blocks with the dinosaur in his hand.) Ph:¡Ay caramba! T:Ay caramba? T:What is it?... What did you say Phillip? Ph:¡Ay caramba! T:Caramba? Ph:¡Ay caramba! T:What does it mean? Ph:It means when you see a dinosaur you say, ¡Ay caramba! T:Oh, I see. Snapshot 2: Phillip, Age 4

17 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Brianas home language is Spanish, and she is learning English as a second language. A recorder was used to capture her language on tape and then transcribed for this documentation. Description: Upon arriving at school in the morning, Briana announces to her teacher: B:Im going to have a party right here and my house. (pause) Right here (pause) I am going to have it in my house and the school, right here. T:Yes, Mommy said on Thursday you will have your party here at school. Snapshot 3: Briana, Age 4

18 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Snapshots of Students (continued) Review the assigned snapshot. Discuss the various stages of language acquisition in relation to the child described in the snapshot; use Handout 5A as a resource (5 minutes). Come to a consensus on which stage(s) of second language acquisition most appropriately describe(s) the child in the snapshot (2 minutes). Reconvene as a whole group to share your impressions.

19 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Keep in Mind... A child may appear to be in one or more of these stages depending on the: –Context –Communication partners –Language scaffolds available to them –Opportunities provided by the teacher

20 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Focus on Fluid Language Use Social English –Used in relaxed interactions with peers and adults. Academic English –Used in many school activities and lessons.

21 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Social English Precedes academic English. Relies mostly on spoken language, using short, simple sentences. Caution: May mislead teachers/adults to think the child is ready to learn and comprehend complex concepts in a second language.

22 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Examples of Social English Laura is talking with her friend Brianna outside during free play. Laura is telling Brianna to be the baby and that she will be the mommy. The teacher asks Juan what he did with his family on the weekend. Juan tells him about their trip to the beach.

23 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Academic English Often requires use of written and spoken language, longer and more complex sentence structure. Requires mastery of larger vocabulary. Often offers fewer context clues for child to grasp meaning.

24 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Maximillian describes the pattern he has created with pattern blocks to his teacher. Ms. Delgado reads a book to the class. Luz Isabel retells the story prompted by the teachers questions about the characters. Note: The goal is for children to perform in all four of the language skills addressed in school: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examples of Academic English

25 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Refer to page of the Resource Guide for a comprehensive list of child strategies and teacher responses. Child and Teacher Strategies Child uses: Cognitive strategies Social strategies Teacher uses: Strategies for responding to children at particular stages

26 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Step 1: Role-Play Teacher Support Strategies Read the 2-3 support strategies assigned to your group (see chart on p. 54 of the Resource Guide). Use Handout 5A: Descriptions of the Stages of Second Language Acquisition as a resource as you discuss the corresponding stage(s) for the strategies. Identify ways to implement the strategies in class with preschool English learners. Choose one strategy to role-play: –Include teacher, English learner(s), peers, etc. –Incorporate verbal and non-verbal interactions.

27 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Step 2: Role-Play Teacher Support Strategies Group role-plays one strategy without stating the strategy name. Audience identifies the strategy. Group confirms the strategy and shares: –Relevant stages of second language acquisition. –Ways to implement the strategy in class with preschool English learners.

28 Working document. Not to be distributed without CDE Permission. Preschool English Learners Training Manual – Chapter Reflection Turn to page 56 in the Resource Guide and take the time to answer Question 3 on your Reflection handout: –What community resources can I use to provide language models for students in my class whose home language I do not speak?


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