11by function COFOG General public services Defense Public order and safetyEconomic affairsEnvironmental protectionHousing & community amenitiesHealthRecreation, culture and religionEducationSocial protection
13Multiple classifications are being used by most countries The EU uses a mixture of program and function, called “Activity-Based Budgeting”
14Keys to Good Program Budgets: Measurable Goals and Objectives
15Three Ways to Measure Results: OutputsOutcomesEfficiency
16Outputs Generally measures of physical things, services or events. You simply count them.
17Output Examples: or fund 1,000 research projects in a given year The budget might fund the construction of two new schoolsor fund 1,000 research projects in a given year
18Output Examples:These countable results could be documented on paper or in an electronic form.
19Output Examples continued Physical objects (or units of workload) represent output measures, such as:“3 computer systems installed”
20Output Examples continued “2,500 students graduated”
21Give an example of an output measure that does NOT involve education
22Outcomes. This is a technical term for an effectiveness measure. Outcomes show qualitative, measurable progress towards a major goal or objective,or the completion of the goal.
23Example of a National Goal: Constructing schools within a one hour traveling distance for 90% of Oravian students.
24% of a Solution or Outcome Think in terms of percentages or fractions of a solution when you are looking for an outcome measure.
25Outcome Example:70%The Oravian Education Ministry can certify that "70% of the population now lives within 1 hour of a local school".It has achieved major progress toward an important, measurable outcome.
26The goal has been completed Outcome Example 2:90% of the population lives within 1 hour of a local school.The goal has been completed
27EfficiencyEfficiency measures are often expressed as the unit cost of producing or purchasing an item or a service.
28Efficiency Example: Unit Cost It might cost $10 to buy one textbook.It is essential to assure that all of the costs associated with the production of an item or service have been identified.Perhaps the delivered cost is $ 11.
29Productivity Example: Efficiency can also be measured by looking at the productivity of resourcesfor examplethe number of student class hours taught per professor.
30Time Efficiency Example Another example would be the time it takes to accomplish a certain tasksuch as 1 hour per classor1 year per research study
31Performance Measures or Performance Indicators The devices we use to calibrate results
32Performance Measures Examples: The Goal is: “to make university education available to 20% of the population by 2010”(An outcome)Measure:% of population able to attend
33The Objective is: the number of seats available. (An output) “to expand the number of university seats/places/enrollments by 10,000 in 2004”.(An output)The measure is:the number of seats available.
34Program Budgets are the best format for good analysis because: They have clear statements of purposes and expected results
35Program Budgets are the best format for good analysis because: Additional data is produced for analysis
36Program Budgets are the best format for good analysis because: They emphasize value for money
37Program Budgets are the best format for good analysis because: Accountability is assigned to specific agencies or managers