3Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthRatio of Surface Area to Volume
4Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthAs the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area.The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products.
5Transport of Substances Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthTransport of SubstancesSubstances move by diffusion or by motor proteins.Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient.Small cells maintain more efficient transport systems.
6Cellular Communications Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthCellular CommunicationsThe need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size.Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions.
7Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Cell CycleCell division prevents the cell from becoming too large.It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal certain injuries.Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle.
8Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthInterphase is the stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates.Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.Cytokinesis is the method by which a cell’s cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
9The Stages of Interphase Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Stages of InterphaseThe first stage of interphase, G1The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.
10The Second Stage of Interphase, S Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Second Stage of Interphase, SThe cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division.
11The Third Stage of Interphase, G2 Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Third Stage of Interphase, G2The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
12The cell’s chromatin tightens. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisThe Stages of MitosisProphaseThe cell’s chromatin tightens.Sister chromatids are attached at the centromere.Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
13The nuclear envelope seems to disappear. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisThe nuclear envelope seems to disappear.Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids.
14They line up in the middle of the cell. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisMetaphaseSister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell.They line up in the middle of the cell.
15The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisAnaphaseThe microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten.The sister chromatids separate.The chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell.
16The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisTelophaseThe chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax.Two new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear.The spindle apparatus disassembles.
17In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisCytokinesisIn animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm.In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell plate, forms.Visualizing the Cell Cycle
189.3 Cell Cycle Regulation Normal Cell Cycle Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationNormal Cell CycleDifferent cyclin/CDK combinations signal other activities, including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and nuclear division throughout the cell cycle.
19Quality Control Checkpoints Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationQuality Control CheckpointsThe cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong.Spindle checkpoints also have been identified in mitosis.
20Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationAbnormal Cell Cycle: CancerCancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells.Cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normalcells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.
21Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationCauses of CancerThe changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations.Various environmental factors can affect the occurrence of cancer cells.
22Apoptosis Programmed cell death Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationApoptosisProgrammed cell deathCells going through apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process.
23Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationStem CellsUnspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
24Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationEmbryonic Stem CellsAfter fertilization, the resulting mass of cells divides repeatedly until there are about –150 cells. These cells have not become specialized.
25Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationAdult Stem CellsFound in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissueLess controversial because the adult stem cells can be obtained with the consent of their donorCellular Reproduction
26Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Cellular ReproductionChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.
27Which is the first phase of mitosis? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is the first phase of mitosis?interphaseprophasemetaphasetelophase
28During what phase do the sister chromatids Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsDuring what phase do the sister chromatidsline up in the middle of the cell?interphasemetaphaseanaphasetelophase
29Which is not a phase of the cell cycle? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a phase of the cell cycle?cytokinesisinterphaseapoptosismitosis
30Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and expel waste products? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsWhich can more efficiently supply nutrients andexpel waste products?larger cellssmaller cellscells with lower surface area to volume ratiocells shaped like a cube
31At what stage does a cell spend most of its life? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsAt what stage does a cell spend most ofits life?cytokinesisinterphasemitosissynthesis
32What happens in the cell during cytokinesis? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsWhat happens in the cell during cytokinesis?The cell grows and carries out normalfunctions.The cell copies its DNA and formschromosomes.The cell’s nucleus and nuclear materialdivide.The cell’s cytoplasm divides.
33In what stage of the cell cycle does the Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Formative QuestionsIn what stage of the cell cycle does thecell’s replicated genetic material separate?cytokinesisinterphasemitosisprophase
35At the end of mitosis the nuclear material is Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Formative QuestionsTrue or FalseAt the end of mitosis the nuclear material isdivided and two new cells have formed.
36What are the “key and ignition” that start the Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhat are the “key and ignition” that start thevarious activities in the cell cycle?chromatin and chromosomescyclin and CDKsmicrotubules and spindle fibersprotein and ribosomes
37Which of these cancer-causing substances or Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhich of these cancer-causing substances oragents is impossible to avoid completely?chemicals such as asbestosfood and drinks that the FDA warns maycontain carcinogenstobacco and second-hand smokeultraviolet radiation from the Sun
38What is the term for the programmed death Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for the programmed deathof cells that are damaged beyond repair orhave harmful changes in their DNA?apoptosiscarcinogenscytokinesismitosis
39Which cells are not locked into becoming Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhich cells are not locked into becomingone particular kind of cell and are capableof developing into specialized tissues?apoptotic cellscancer cellsprokaryotic cellsstem cells
40This cell has completed what stage of mitosis? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsThis cell has completed what stage ofmitosis?anaphaseinterphasemetaphasetelophase
41What term is used to describe programmed cell death? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat term is used to describe programmedcell death?apoptosisanaphasenecrosiscyclins
42What is the role of cyclins in a cell? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat is the role of cyclins in a cell?to control the movement of microtubulesto signal for the cell to divideto stimulate the breakdown of thenuclear membraneto cause the nucleolus to disappear
43C B A Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area to volume? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich cell has the lowest ratio of surface areato volume?CBA
44At what stage of interphase does the cell take Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeAt what stage of interphase does the cell takeinventory and make sure it is ready for the divisionof its nucleus?G1SG2M
45Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich occurs in plant cells but not animal cellsduring the cell cycle?formation of a cell plateformation of microtubulesformation of a cleavage furrow at the equatorof the cellmovement of chromosomes to the poles ofthe cell
46Multiple changes in DNA are required to Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeTrue or FalseMultiple changes in DNA are required tochange an abnormal cell into a cancer cell.
47Which is not a condition that can result in cancer? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not a condition that can result in cancer?a failure in the control mechanisms thatregulate the cell cyclea failure in the repair systems that fixchanges or damage to DNAa failure of the spindle fibers to movechromosomes during mitosismutations or changes in segments of DNAthat control protein production