2Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthRatio of Surface Area to Volume
3INCREASES much faster than its surface area Two Formulas Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthAs cell size INCREASES, its volumeINCREASES much faster than its surface areaTwo FormulasSA = 2(LW) + 2(LH) + 2(HW)V = L x W x HExample: Cell A: Side= 1mmSA = 6mm2V = 1mm3What happens if sides increases to 2mm?
4Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthAs the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area.The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products.
5Transport of Substances Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthTransport of SubstancesSubstances move by diffusion or by motor proteins.Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient.Small cells maintain more efficient transport systems.
6Cellular Communications Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthCellular CommunicationsThe need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size.Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions.
7Our entire body is made of cells-these are called body cells Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthOur entire body is made of cells-these are called body cellsInside each cell is a nucleus (“control center” and inside the nucleus are the chromosomes (bundles of DNA)How many chromosomes do humans have?There are 46 chromosomes inside EACH cellException to this rule is the sperm and egg (gametes) only have 23 chromosomesCells must reproduce themselves at some point in their life. They do this by dividing in half to produce two new cells.
8Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Cell CycleCell division prevents the cell from becoming too large.It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal certain injuries.Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle.
9Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthInterphase is the stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates.Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.Cytokinesis is the method by which a cell’s cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.
10The Stages of Interphase The first stage of interphase, G1 Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Stages of InterphaseThe first stage of interphase, G1The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA.Cells are performing their assigned tasks, metabolizing, synthesizing, etc.
11The Second Stage of Interphase, S Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Second Stage of Interphase, SThe cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division. (DNA synthesizes)DNA goes from 2 arms to 4 arms
12The Third Stage of Interphase, G2 Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Cellular GrowthThe Third Stage of Interphase, G22nd growth stageThe cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
13Body cell reproduction Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisMitosisBody cell reproductionA cell divides into 2 new “daughter” cells and the cell cycle starts overFour Stages of Mitosis = PMAT
14The cell’s chromatin tightens. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisThe Stages of MitosisProphaseDNA organizes itselfThe cell’s chromatin tightens.Sister chromatids are attached at the centromere.Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm.
15The nuclear envelope seems to disappear. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisThe nuclear envelope seems to disappear.Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids.
16They line up in the middle of the cell. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisMetaphaseSister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell.They line up in the middle of the cell.
17The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisAnaphaseThe microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten.The sister chromatids separate.The chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell.
18The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax. Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisTelophaseThe chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax.Two new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear.The spindle apparatus disassembles.
19In humans each cell would have 46 chromosomes (diploid amount) Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Mitosis and CytokinesisCytokinesisCell membrane moves inward to create TWO daughter cells- each with its own nucleus and identical chromosomesIn humans each cell would have 46 chromosomes (diploid amount)In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm.In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell plate, forms.
209.3 Cell Cycle Regulation Normal Cell Cycle Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationNormal Cell CycleDifferent cyclin/CDK combinations signal other activities, including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and nuclear division throughout the cell cycle.
21Quality Control Checkpoints Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationQuality Control CheckpointsThe cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong.Spindle checkpoints also have been identified in mitosis.
22Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationAbnormal Cell Cycle: CancerCancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells.Cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normalcells, resulting in the loss of tissue function.
23Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationCauses of CancerThe changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations.Various environmental factors can affect the occurrence of cancer cells.
24Apoptosis Programmed cell death Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationApoptosisProgrammed cell deathCells going through apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process.
25Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationStem CellsUnspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions
26An embryo is an organism’s early prebirth stage of development Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationEmbryonic Stem CellsAn embryo is an organism’s early prebirth stage of developmentAfter fertilization, the resulting mass of cells divides repeatedly until there are about –150 cells. These cells have not become specialized.
27Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Cell Cycle RegulationAdult Stem CellsFound in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissueLess controversial because the adult stem cells can be obtained with the consent of their donor
28Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Cellular ReproductionChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
29Which is the first phase of mitosis? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is the first phase of mitosis?interphaseprophasemetaphasetelophaseABCDCDQ 1
30During what phase do the sister chromatids Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsDuring what phase do the sister chromatidsline up in the middle of the cell?interphasemetaphaseanaphasetelophaseABCDCDQ 2
31Which is not a phase of the cell cycle? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a phase of the cell cycle?cytokinesisinterphaseapoptosismitosisABCDCDQ 3
32Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and expel waste products? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsWhich can more efficiently supply nutrients andexpel waste products?larger cellssmaller cellscells with lower surface area to volume ratiocells shaped like a cubeABCDFQ 1
33At what stage does a cell spend most of its life? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsAt what stage does a cell spend most ofits life?cytokinesisinterphasemitosissynthesisABCDFQ 2
34What happens in the cell during cytokinesis? Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.1 Formative QuestionsWhat happens in the cell during cytokinesis?The cell grows and carries out normal functions.The cell copies its DNA and forms chromosomes.The cell’s nucleus and nuclear material divide.The cell’s cytoplasm divides.ABCDFQ 3
35In what stage of the cell cycle does the Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Formative QuestionsIn what stage of the cell cycle does thecell’s replicated genetic material separate?cytokinesisinterphasemitosisprophaseABCDFQ 4
37At the end of mitosis the nuclear material is Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.2 Formative QuestionsAt the end of mitosis the nuclear material isdivided and two new cells have formed.truefalseABFQ 6
38What are the “key and ignition” that start the Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhat are the “key and ignition” that start thevarious activities in the cell cycle?chromatin and chromosomescyclin and CDKsmicrotubules and spindle fibersprotein and ribosomesABCDFQ 7
39Which of these cancer-causing substances or Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhich of these cancer-causing substances oragents is impossible to avoid completely?chemicals such as asbestosfood and drinks that the FDA warns may contain carcinogenstobacco and second-hand smokeultraviolet radiation from the SunABCDFQ 8
40What is the term for the programmed death Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is the term for the programmed deathof cells that are damaged beyond repair orhave harmful changes in their DNA?apoptosiscarcinogenscytokinesismitosisABCDFQ 9
41Which cells are not locked into becoming Chapter 9Cellular Reproduction9.3 Formative QuestionsWhich cells are not locked into becomingone particular kind of cell and are capableof developing into specialized tissues?apoptotic cellscancer cellsprokaryotic cellsstem cellsABCDFQ 10
42This cell has completed what stage of mitosis? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsThis cell has completed what stage of mitosis?anaphaseinterphasemetaphasetelophaseABCDCAQ 1
43What term is used to describe programmed cell death? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat term is used to describe programmedcell death?apoptosisanaphasenecrosiscyclinsABCDCAQ 2
44What is the role of cyclins in a cell? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionChapter Assessment QuestionsWhat is the role of cyclins in a cell?to control the movement of microtubulesto signal for the cell to divideto stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membraneto cause the nucleolus to disappearABCDCAQ 3
45C B A Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area to volume? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich cell has the lowest ratio of surface areato volume?ABCABCSTP 1
46Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeAt what stage of interphase does the cell take inventory and make sure it is ready for the division of its nucleus?G1SG2MABCDSTP 2
47Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich occurs in plant cells but not animal cellsduring the cell cycle?formation of a cell plateformation of microtubulesformation of a cleavage furrow at the equator of the cellmovement of chromosomes to the poles of the cellABCDSTP 3
48Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeMultiple changes in DNA are required to change an abnormal cell into a cancer cell.truefalseABSTP 4
49Which is not a condition that can result in cancer? Chapter 9Cellular ReproductionStandardized Test PracticeWhich is not a condition that can result in cancer?a failure in the control mechanisms that regulate the cell cyclea failure in the repair systems that fix changes or damage to DNAa failure of the spindle fibers to move chromosomes during mitosismutations or changes in segments of DNA that control protein productionABCDSTP 5