Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Section 1: Cellular Growth Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 3: Cell Cycle.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Section 1: Cellular Growth Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 3: Cell Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Section 1: Cellular Growth Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 3: Cell Cycle Regulation

3 9.1 Cellular Growth Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction

4 9.1 Cellular Growth Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction As cell size INCREASES, its volume INCREASES much faster than its surface area Two Formulas SA = 2(LW) + 2(LH) + 2(HW) V = L x W x H Example:Cell A: Side= 1mm SA = 6mm 2 V = 1mm 3 What happens if sides increases to 2mm?

5 Cellular Reproduction As the cell grows, its volume increases much more rapidly than the surface area. The cell might have difficulty supplying nutrients and expelling enough waste products. Chapter Cellular Growth

6 Transport of Substances Substances move by diffusion or by motor proteins. Diffusion over large distances is slow and inefficient. Cellular Reproduction Small cells maintain more efficient transport systems. Chapter Cellular Growth

7 Cellular Communications The need for signaling proteins to move throughout the cell also limits cell size. Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions. Cellular Reproduction Chapter Cellular Growth

8 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Cellular Growth Our entire body is made of cells-these are called body cells Inside each cell is a nucleus (control center and inside the nucleus are the chromosomes (bundles of DNA) How many chromosomes do humans have? There are 46 chromosomes inside EACH cell Exception to this rule is the sperm and egg (gametes) only have 23 chromosomes Cells must reproduce themselves at some point in their life. They do this by dividing in half to produce two new cells.

9 The Cell Cycle Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large. It also is the way the cell reproduces so that you grow and heal certain injuries. Cellular Reproduction Cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing called the cell cycle. Chapter Cellular Growth

10 Interphase is the stage during which the cell grows, carries out cellular functions, and replicates. Mitosis is the stage of the cell cycle during which the cells nucleus and nuclear material divide. Cellular Reproduction Chapter Cellular Growth Cytokinesis is the method by which a cells cytoplasm divides, creating a new cell.

11 Cellular Reproduction The Stages of Interphase The first stage of interphase, G 1 The cell is growing, carrying out normal cell functions, and preparing to replicate DNA. Cells are performing their assigned tasks, metabolizing, synthesizing, etc. Chapter Cellular Growth

12 Cellular Reproduction The Second Stage of Interphase, S The cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division. (DNA synthesizes) DNA goes from 2 arms to 4 arms Chapter Cellular Growth

13 Cellular Reproduction The Third Stage of Interphase, G 2 2 nd growth stage The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus. Chapter Cellular Growth

14 9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Mitosis Body cell reproduction A cell divides into 2 new daughter cells and the cell cycle starts over Four Stages of Mitosis = PMAT

15 9.2 Mitosis and Cytokinesis Cellular Reproduction The Stages of Mitosis Prophase DNA organizes itself The cells chromatin tightens. Sister chromatids are attached at the centromere. Spindle fibers form in the cytoplasm. Chapter 9

16 Cellular Reproduction The nuclear envelope seems to disappear. Spindle fibers attach to the sister chromatids. Chapter Mitosis and Cytokinesis

17 Cellular Reproduction Metaphase Sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell. They line up in the middle of the cell. Chapter Mitosis and Cytokinesis

18 Cellular Reproduction Anaphase The microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten. The sister chromatids separate. The chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell. Chapter Mitosis and Cytokinesis

19 Cellular Reproduction Telophase The chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax. Two new nuclear membranes begin to form and the nucleoli reappear. The spindle apparatus disassembles. Chapter Mitosis and Cytokinesis

20 Cellular Reproduction Cytokinesis Cell membrane moves inward to create TWO daughter cells- each with its own nucleus and identical chromosomes In humans each cell would have 46 chromosomes (diploid amount) In animal cells, microfilaments constrict, or pinch, the cytoplasm. In plant cells, a new structure, called a cell plate, forms. Chapter Mitosis and Cytokinesis

21 9.3 Cell Cycle Regulation Cellular Reproduction Normal Cell Cycle Different cyclin/CDK combinations signal other activities, including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and nuclear division throughout the cell cycle. Chapter 9

22 Cellular Reproduction Quality Control Checkpoints The cell cycle has built-in checkpoints that monitor the cycle and can stop it if something goes wrong. Spindle checkpoints also have been identified in mitosis. Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

23 Cellular Reproduction Abnormal Cell Cycle: Cancer Cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of cells. Cancer cells can kill an organism by crowding out normal cells, resulting in the loss of tissue function. Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

24 Cellular Reproduction Causes of Cancer The changes that occur in the regulation of cell growth and division of cancer cells are due to mutations. Various environmental factors can affect the occurrence of cancer cells. Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

25 Cellular Reproduction Apoptosis Programmed cell death Cells going through apoptosis actually shrink and shrivel in a controlled process. Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

26 Cellular Reproduction Stem Cells Unspecialized cells that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

27 Cellular Reproduction Embryonic Stem Cells An embryo is an organisms early prebirth stage of development After fertilization, the resulting mass of cells divides repeatedly until there are about 100–150 cells. These cells have not become specialized. Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

28 Cellular Reproduction Adult Stem Cells Found in various tissues in the body and might be used to maintain and repair the same kind of tissue Less controversial because the adult stem cells can be obtained with the consent of their donor Chapter Cell Cycle Regulation

29 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature. Chapter 9

30 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 A. interphase B. prophase C. metaphase D. telophase Which is the first phase of mitosis? Cellular Reproduction Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 9

31 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 9 A. interphase B. metaphase C. anaphase D. telophase During what phase do the sister chromatids line up in the middle of the cell?

32 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter 9 A. cytokinesis B. interphase C. apoptosis D. mitosis Which is not a phase of the cell cycle?

33 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 1 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Which can more efficiently supply nutrients and expel waste products? A. larger cells B. smaller cells C. cells with lower surface area to volume ratio D. cells shaped like a cube 9.1 Formative Questions

34 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 2 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 At what stage does a cell spend most of its life? A. cytokinesis B. interphase C. mitosis D. synthesis 9.1 Formative Questions

35 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 3 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 What happens in the cell during cytokinesis? A. The cell grows and carries out normal functions. B. The cell copies its DNA and forms chromosomes. C. The cells nucleus and nuclear material divide. D. The cells cytoplasm divides. 9.1 Formative Questions

36 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 4 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 In what stage of the cell cycle does the cells replicated genetic material separate? A. cytokinesis B. interphase C. mitosis D. prophase 9.2 Formative Questions

37 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 5 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Which diagram shows anaphase? A. B. C. D. 9.2 Formative Questions

38 1.A 2.B FQ 6 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 At the end of mitosis the nuclear material is divided and two new cells have formed. 9.2 Formative Questions A. true B. false

39 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 7 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 What are the key and ignition that start the various activities in the cell cycle? A. chromatin and chromosomes B. cyclin and CDKs C. microtubules and spindle fibers D. protein and ribosomes 9.3 Formative Questions

40 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 8 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Which of these cancer-causing substances or agents is impossible to avoid completely? A. chemicals such as asbestos B. food and drinks that the FDA warns may contain carcinogens C. tobacco and second-hand smoke D. ultraviolet radiation from the Sun 9.3 Formative Questions

41 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 9 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Formative Questions What is the term for the programmed death of cells that are damaged beyond repair or have harmful changes in their DNA? A. apoptosis B. carcinogens C. cytokinesis D. mitosis

42 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D FQ 10 Cellular Reproduction Chapter Formative Questions Which cells are not locked into becoming one particular kind of cell and are capable of developing into specialized tissues? A. apoptotic cells B. cancer cells C. prokaryotic cells D. stem cells

43 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 1 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 This cell has completed what stage of mitosis? A. anaphase B. interphase C. metaphase D. telophase Chapter Assessment Questions

44 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 2 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 What term is used to describe programmed cell death? A. apoptosis B. anaphase C. necrosis D. cyclins Chapter Assessment Questions

45 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CAQ 3 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 What is the role of cyclins in a cell? A. to control the movement of microtubules B. to signal for the cell to divide C. to stimulate the breakdown of the nuclear membrane D. to cause the nucleolus to disappear Chapter Assessment Questions

46 1.A 2.B 3.C STP 1 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Which cell has the lowest ratio of surface area to volume? A B C Standardized Test Practice

47 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 2 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Standardized Test Practice At what stage of interphase does the cell take inventory and make sure it is ready for the division of its nucleus? A. G 1 B. S C. G 2 D. M

48 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 3 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Standardized Test Practice Which occurs in plant cells but not animal cells during the cell cycle? A. formation of a cell plate B. formation of microtubules C. formation of a cleavage furrow at the equator of the cell D. movement of chromosomes to the poles of the cell

49 1.A 2.B STP 4 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Standardized Test Practice Multiple changes in DNA are required to change an abnormal cell into a cancer cell. A. true B. false

50 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D STP 5 Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Standardized Test Practice Which is not a condition that can result in cancer? A. a failure in the control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle B. a failure in the repair systems that fix changes or damage to DNA C. a failure of the spindle fibers to move chromosomes during mitosis D. mutations or changes in segments of DNA that control protein production

51 cell cycle interphase mitosis cytokinesis chromosome chromatin Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Vocabulary Section 1

52 prophase sister chromatid centromere spindle apparatus metaphase anaphase telophase Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Vocabulary Section 2

53 cyclin cyclin-dependent kinase cancer carcinogen apoptosis stem cell Cellular Reproduction Chapter 9 Vocabulary Section 3


Download ppt "Click on a lesson name to select. Chapter 9 Cellular Reproduction Section 1: Cellular Growth Section 2: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Section 3: Cell Cycle."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google