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Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: The Digestive System Section 2: Nutrition Section 3: The Endocrine System Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: The Digestive System Section 2: Nutrition Section 3: The Endocrine System Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Section 1: The Digestive System Section 2: Nutrition Section 3: The Endocrine System Chapter 35 Digestive and Endocrine Systems

4 35.1 The Digestive System Functions of the Digestive System Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Ingests food Breaks it down so nutrients can be absorbed Eliminates what cannot be digested

5 Ingestion Digestive and Endocrine Systems Mechanical digestion Chemical digestion Involves chewing food to break it down into smaller pieces The action of enzymes in breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

6 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

7 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Esophagus Muscular tube that connects the pharynx, or throat, to the stomach Peristalsis Smooth muscles contract rhythmically to move food through the digestive system. 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

8 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

9 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Stomach Walls of the stomach are composed of three overlapping layers of smooth muscle that are involved with mechanical digestion. Environment inside the stomach is very acidic. Pepsin is an enzyme involved in the process of the chemical digestion of proteins. 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

10 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Small Intestine Smooth muscles in the wall of the small intestine continue the process of mechanical digestion and push the food farther through the digestive tract by peristalsis. 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

11 Pancreas Digestive and Endocrine Systems Liver Gallbladder The completion of chemical digestion in the small intestine depends on 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

12 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Pancreas Produces enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Produces hormones 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

13 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Liver Produces bile, which helps to break down fats Gallbladder Stores excess bile 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

14 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Food nutrients are absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream through fingerlike structures called villi. Villi increase the surface area of the small intestine. 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

15 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Large Intestine A primary function of the colon is to absorb water from the chyme. Peristalsis moves feces toward the rectum. 35.1 The Digestive System Chapter 35

16 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

17 35.2 Nutrition Digestive and Endocrine Systems Calories Nutrition is the process by which a person takes in and uses food. A Calorie is a unit used to measure the energy content of foods. The energy content of food can be measured by burning the food and converting the stored energy to heat. Chapter 35

18 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

19 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

20 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates are macromolecules such as starches, which are long chains of sugar. Complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

21 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Glucose is stored in the liver. Dietary fiber helps keep food moving through the digestive tract. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35 Simple sugars are absorbed through villi.

22 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Fats Fats are the most concentrated energy source available to the body. Building blocks for the body Classified as saturated and unsaturated Meats and cheeses are sources of saturated fats. Plants are the main source of unsaturated fats. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

23 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Fatty acids can be absorbed through the villi and circulated in the blood throughout the body. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35 Fats are digested in the small intestine and broken down into fatty acids and glycerol.

24 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Proteins Proteins are broken down to their subunit amino acids. Amino acids are absorbed into the bloodstream and carried to various body cells. Essential amino acids are the eight amino acids that must be included in a persons diet. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

25 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Food Pyramid 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

26 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for metabolic activities. Minerals are inorganic compounds used by the body as building material, and they are involved with metabolic functions. 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

27 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

28 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.2 Nutrition Chapter 35

29 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Nutrition Labels Based on a 2000-Calorie per day diet name of the food net weight or volume name and address of manufacturer, distributor, or packager ingredients nutrient content 35.2 Nutrition The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

30 Digestive and Endocrine Systems 35.3 The Endocrine System Action of Hormones Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into the bloodstream and distributed to body cells. Hormones are classified as steroid hormones and nonsteroid or amino acid hormones. Chapter 35

31 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Steroid Hormones Soluble in lipids and therefore can diffuse through the plasma membrane of a target cell Bind to a receptor in the cell The hormone and the receptor that are bound together bind to DNA in the nucleus. 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

32 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

33 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Amino Acid Hormones Nonsteroid hormones are composed of amino acids. Bind to receptors found on the plasma membrane of a target cell because they cannot diffuse through the plasma membrane 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

34 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35

35 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Negative Feedback Negative feedback returns a system to a set point once it deviates sufficiently from that set point. 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

36 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones Pituitary gland Situated at the base of the brain Secretes hormones that regulate many body functions Regulates other endocrine glands 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

37 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Thyroxine causes cells of the body to have a higher rate of metabolism. Calcitonin is a hormone that is partly responsible for the regulation of calcium. Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels. 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

38 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Pancreas Crucial role in the production of enzymes that digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats Secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon which work together to maintain homeostasis 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

39 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Adrenal Glands Located just above the kidneys Manufactures the steroid hormone aldosterone and a group of hormones called glucocorticoids 35.3 The Endocrine System Visualizing the Endocrine System Chapter 35

40 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Link to the Nervous System The hypothalamus produces two hormones, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone. The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) functions in homeostasis by regulating water balance. 35.3 The Endocrine System Chapter 35

41 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions Formative Test Questions Chapter Assessment Questions Standardized Test Practice biologygmh.com Glencoe Biology Transparencies Image Bank Vocabulary Animation Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. Chapter 35

42 Which is an enzyme responsible for breaking down starches into sugars? A. amylase B. appendix C. peristalsis D. pepsin Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

43 Cellulose is an example of what type of food? A. fat B. protein C. carbohydrate D. vegetable Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

44 Which glands play a role in the fight or flight response? A. adrenal B. pituitary C. parathyroid D. thyroid Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Diagnostic Questions

45 What type of digestion is carried out by the action of smooth muscles in the stomach and small intestine? A. chemical digestion B. mechanical digestion Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.1 Formative Questions

46 Where does the chemical digestion of starches begin? A. mouth B. stomach C. small intestine D. large intestine Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.1 Formative Questions

47 In what type of solution is the enzyme pepsin most active? A. acidic solution B. buffered solution C. gaseous solution D. concentrated sugar solution Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.1 Formative Questions

48 What is the primary function of the large intestine? A. absorption of water from chyme B. chemical breakdown of feces C. excretion of acids and hormones D. mechanical digestion of lipids Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.1 Formative Questions

49 What is glycogen? A. a complex carbohydrate found in fruits B. a form of glucose stored in the liver C. a lipoprotein found in meat and fish D. a simple sugar carried by the blood Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.2 Formative Questions

50 Digestive and Endocrine Systems True or False Fats are an important part of a healthy diet. Chapter 35 35.2 Formative Questions

51 What nutrients are released by the digestion of proteins, absorbed into the bloodstream, and reassembled into proteins in body cells? A. amino acids B. folic acids C. glycerols D. vitamins Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.2 Formative Questions

52 Which nutrients contain the most energy, gram for gram? A. carbohydrates B. fats C. proteins D. vitamins Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.2 Formative Questions

53 Which substances are necessary for proper nerve conduction and muscle contraction? A. Vitamins A and E B. Vitamins B 2, B 6, and B 12 C. the minerals Ca, Na, and K D. the minerals Fe, Cu, and Zn Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.2 Formative Questions

54 Which type of hormone sends a message from outside the cell to an enzyme inside the cell? Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions

55 A. amino acid hormone B. diuretic hormone C. steroid hormone D. transmembrane hormone Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions

56 Which gland responds to a stressful situation by producing a hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and blood sugar levels? A. adrenal gland B. hypothalamus C. parathyroid gland D. pituitary gland Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions

57 What other two hormones are secreted by the adrenal glands? A. aldosterone and cortisol B. calcitonin and PTH C. estrogen and hGH D. oxytocin and ADH Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions

58 How does this system maintain homeostasis through negative feedback? Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions

59 D. It maintains a particular range of water volume in the blood. Digestive and Endocrine Systems A. It combines the affects of two different endocrine glands. Chapter 35 35.3 Formative Questions B. It inhibits the affect of hormones other than ADH. C. It involves both the endocrine and nervous systems.

60 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Describe what causes heartburn. Chapter 35 Chapter Assessment Questions

61 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Answer: If the sphincter in the upper part of the stomach leaks, some of the acid moves into the esophagus causing heartburn. Chapter 35 Chapter Assessment Questions

62 Describe the function of the antidiuretic hormone. A. absorb sodium B. raise blood glucose levels C. regulate water balance D. lower blood calcium Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Assessment Questions

63 What is the primary function of the liver? Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Assessment Questions

64 A. produce enzymes B. produce hormones C. produce bile D. produce protein Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Chapter Assessment Questions

65 Which organ stores bile and releases it when needed? Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

66 Digestive and Endocrine Systems How does this structure aid in the digestive process? Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

67 Digestive and Endocrine Systems A. It increases surface area. B. It mechanically digests food. C. It secretes digestive enzymes. D. It traps foreign particles. Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

68 Digestive and Endocrine Systems True or False People should minimize their intake of foods that contain cellulose because humans cannot digest cellulose. Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

69 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Which types of fats are found in corn oil and olive oil? A. saturated fats B. unsaturated fats Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

70 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Why does the body need vitamins? A. They provide energy. B. They are used to build cells. C. They help enzymes to function. D. They recycle nutrient molecules. Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

71 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Which hormone is more likely to be secreted by the pancreas during intense exercise? A. glucagon B. insulin Chapter 35 Standardized Test Practice

72 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Glencoe Biology Transparencies

73 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Image Bank

74 mechanical digestion chemical digestion amylase esophagus peristalsis pepsin small intestine liver villus large intestine Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Vocabulary Section 1

75 nutrition Calorie vitamin mineral Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Vocabulary Section 2

76 endocrine gland hormone pituitary gland thyroxine calcitonin parathyroid hormone insulin glucagon aldosterone cortisol antidiuretic hormone Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Vocabulary Section 3

77 Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 35 Animation Smooth Muscle Contraction Steroid Hormone Stimulation Amino Acid Hormone Stimulation Visualizing the Endocrine System


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