Presentation on theme: "MAX Teaching with Reading and Writing Workshop Hot Springs, Arkansas August 3, 2010 Don Eichenberger MAX Teaching Consultant/ Regional Director The Springdale."— Presentation transcript:
MAX Teaching with Reading and Writing Workshop Hot Springs, Arkansas August 3, 2010 Don Eichenberger MAX Teaching Consultant/ Regional Director The Springdale High School 1103 W. Emma Street Springdale, AR Cell Using Literacy Skills To Help Students Learn Subject Matter For more information and examples, go to
I believe that teachers… 1.…do the best they can under difficult circumstances. 2.…will change if they perceive that the changes will help instruction.
Therefore, The Two Questions we ask ourselves as professionals are: 1. How can I maximize the effectiveness of my teaching? 2. How do students learn most effectively? SHS Experience
What we wanted was to find something that was: * Based on current Best Practices, * Practical, * Easy to use, and * Sustainable Something our teachers could see, learn, and use effectively the next day.
WHAT IS INEFFECTIVE AND TYPICALLY FOUND IN CLASSES ACROSS THE US, ACCORDING TO SREB/HSTW: Students have no connection to what they are to learn because they did not read the homework assignment and they do not connect it to their prior knowledge. The Teacher has students copy down vocabulary words and look up the definitions for those words in the glossary. Round Robin or Popcorn Reading. Students are told to copy down notes the teacher has provided. Students fill in spaces on a worksheet created by the teacher or usually by the textbook manufacture. Students are told that this material will be on the Test on Friday and they should get busy and learn it Little or no verbal interaction occurs and no one learns very much, but the class is quiet and orderly since all the students are obviously On Task.
WHAT WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM 1. Identifying similarities and differences 2. Summarizing and note taking 3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 4. Homework and practice 5. Nonlinguistic representations 6. Cooperative learning 7. Setting objectives and providing feedback 8. Generating and testing hypotheses 9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers Source: Adapted from Classroom Instruction That Works by R. J. Marzano, D. J. Pickering, and J. E. Pollock, 2001, Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
MAX Teaching With Reading and Writing Using Content Literacy Based Instruction To Help Students Learn Subject Matter Mark A. Forget, Ph.D. MAX Teaching maxteaching.com
Therefore, would you like to learn how to… Get each and every student, each day, to come to class after having read the homework assignment with the assistance of an adult, and discussing it with two or three peers for twenty minutes on the way to school?
Would you like to learn how to… Get each and every student, each day, to come to class after having read the homework assignment with the assistance of an adult, and discussing it with two or three peers for twenty minutes on the way to school? Develop a set of lesson plans that are effective yet do not take very much time to prepare? Help students to master course content? Develop students as skilled, independent learners? Improve your own ability to read and study effectively? Raise the scores on standardized tests?
Now, please get out a sheet of paper.
What would your classroom be like if every student did come to class having read their homework assignment with the help of an adult having also discussed it with 2 or 3 of their peers? List as many characteristics or traits as possible………
Then: List as many as possible on the board Now come up with 3 categories into which to divide all the information Now in your cooperative groups, come to consensus Then write potentials on the board
Your Fantastic Classroom, con. Put them into your three categories with two sub-categories: ATTITUDE PROCESS ACHIEVEMENT TEACHER STUDENT TEACHER STUDENTTEACHER STUDENT
PRE-LEARNING CONCEPT CHECK Now, look at the Concept Check in the handout Place a + by each term if you know it Place a / (Check) if you have heard of it, but you are not sure what it is Place a 0 if you dont know it NOTE: At the end of the period, these are great places to do an Extension Activity, Like a FFW or a GIST
PRE-LEARNING CONCEPT CHECK + means you are an expert, and you could explain it to anyone here. means you have heard of it, but you are not an expert. 0 means you do not know the word. 1. ANTICIPATION GUIDES 2. PREVIEWING 3. CORNELL (2 COLUMN) NOTES 4. CUBING 5. FICTION PREDICTION 6. DRTA – DIRECTED READING/THINKING ACTIVITY 7. FOCUSED FREE WRITE 8. MATH TRANSLATION 9. GIST 10. GUIDED READING PROCEDURE 11. HUNT FOR MAIN IDEAS 12. I.N.S.E.R.T 13. INTERACTIVE CLOZE PROCEDURE 14. PAIRED READING 15. P.Q.R.2.S.T PREP 17. EXTREME PAIRED READING 18. SENSIBLE SENTENCE HIGHLIGHTING 19. STUDENT GENERATED GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS 20. THINK PAIR SHARE 21. STUMP THE TEACHER 22.THREE LEVEL STUDY GUIDE 23. PRE AND POST LEARNING CONCEPT CHECK
PRE-LEARNING CONCEPT CHECK + means you are an expert, and you could explain it to anyone here. means you have heard of it, but you are not an expert. 0 means you do not know the word. ___solution___ ___system of equations___ ___substitution___ ___graphing___ ___ordered pair___ ___solving for a variable___ ___coefficient___ ___variable___
Electric Current Directions: Use this to rate your understanding of the important terms from this reading. If you are an expert, and you know the word really well, give yourself a + in the space to the left of the word. If you have heard of it, but are not sure or do not feel like an expert, place a in the space. If you do not know the word, use a 0. Before Reading: After Reading: ___ electric current conductor circuit potential energy kinetic energy voltage electron battery terminal resistance ___ ___
+ means you are an expert, and you could explain it to anyone here. means you have heard of it, but you are not an expert. 0 means you do not know the word yet. ___friction___ ___surfaces___ ___rough surface___ ___smooth surface___ ___force___ ___mass___ ___sliding friction___ ___rolling friction___ ___fluid friction___ ___static friction___ ___lubricant___
Our goal is to move the student from being a Restricted Learner to an Autonomous Learner Following the Gradual Release Model –I can do it –We can do it= More teacher centered –You all can do it, together –You can do it your self= More student centered The ultimate goal is that every student can become a Life-long Learner!
HERE IS THE MAX TEACHING PARADIGM CONTRASTED WITH THE GRR MODEL. THE DIFFERENCE IS THAT MAX TEACHING GIVES YOU A PRACTICAL DELIVERY SYSTEM THAT CAN BE EFFECTIVE IN VIRTUALLY ANY CLASSROOM, THAT IS SUPPORTED BY CURRENT BEST PRACTICE RESEARCH BY SREB, HSTW, MARZANO, REEVES, AND OTHERS. 1. FOCUS LESSONI DO ITMOTIVATION ACTIVITY 2. GUIDED INSTRUCTIONWE DO ITSAM (SKILLS AQUISTITION MODEL) 3. COLLABORATIVEYOU DO IT TOGETHERCLEM (THE EFFECTIVE USE OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING) 4. INDEPENDENTYOU DO IT ALONEEXTENSION ACTIVITY
PRACTICAL, PERSONAL QUESTIONS TO ASK….. If there is a better way to business in your class, that is probably easier than what you are currently doing, that is proven to be more effective than what you are probably doing, are you willing to change? Change?
CHANGE? HOW MANY AMISH DOES IT TAKE TO CHANGE A LIGHT BULB? Whats a light bulb? HOW MANY CHARISMATICS? One, they already have their hands in the air. HOW MANY TV EVANGELISTS? One, but for the message of light to continue, send your donation today. HOW MANY CATHOLICS? None they use candles. HOW MANY CHURCH OF CHRIST? They cannot do it at all because it is not specifically mentioned in the New Testament. HOW MANY METHODISTS? They choose not to make a statement either in favor of or against the need for a light bulb. However, if in your own journey, you have found that a light bulb works for you, that is fine. You are invited to write a poem or compose a modern dance and present it next month at our Annual Light Bulb Sunday Service, during which we will explore a number of Light Bulb Traditions including incandescent, fluorescent, and three-way, all of which are equally valid paths to luminescence through Jesus Christ. HOW MANY SOUTHERN BAPTISTS? Change??????
SAM: The Skill Acquisition Model A Skill Acquisition Model for Teaching Literacy Skills.
SAM The Skill Acquisition Model: 1. Introduce and model a skill. 2. Provide guided practice in the use of the skill. 3. Have students report on their use of the skill.
Marzano is probably the most active and quoted Educational Researcher of the past 25 years. Most of his work can be summarized in two basic thoughts: 1.The key to success in the classroom is Guided Practice 2. Multiple exposures
ANTICIPATION GUIDES Now turn to AG in your handout We are now looking at Anticipation Guides Anticipation Guides are versatile learning strategies that are very different from traditional worksheets
ANTICIPATION GUIDE: How Students Learn Most Effectively Before Reading: In the space to the left of each statement, place a check mark ( ) if you agree or think the statement is true. During or After Reading: Add new check marks or cross through those about which you have changed your mind. Keep in mind that this is not like the traditional worksheet. You may have to put on your thinking caps and read between the lines. Use the space under each statement to note the page, column, and paragraph(s) where you have found information to support your thinking. ___1. Students must participate actively in their learning in order for the material learned to become personal knowledge. ___2. The best place for low-performing readers to improve their reading skills is in a remedial reading class. ___3. Most students from kindergarten through twelfth grade can practice critical thinking about virtually any subject matter. ___4. In most school-related learning situations, students and teachers retain much more from what they discuss than from what they read. ___5. Teachers should rely heavily on the textbook as a tool to help students learn their subject matter. ___6. Through daily repetition of practice in using literacy skills to learn and process new information, students can become autonomous learners, without even realizing that the process is occurring. ___7. Reading is thinking – and students scores on most state-mandated standardized tests would improve if teachers were to provide students with guided practice in reading/thinking skills in their daily routine of course content instruction.
___1. Students must participate actively in their learning in order for the material learned to become personal knowledge. ___2. The best place for low-performing readers to improve their reading skills is in a remedial reading class. ___3. Most students from kindergarten through twelfth grade can practice critical thinking about virtually any subject matter. ___4. In most school-related learning situations, students and teachers retain much more from what they discuss than from what they read. ___5. Teachers should rely heavily on the textbook as a tool to help students learn their subject matter. ___6. Through daily repetition of practice in using communication skills to learn and process new information, students can become autonomous learners. ___7. Reading is thinking – and students scores on most state- mandated standardized tests would improve if teachers were to provide students with guided practice in reading/thinking skills in their daily routine of course content instruction.
Characteristics of Effective Anticipation Guides: All statements are about important concepts. Every statement rephrases what the text is saying. All statements are plausible. Some statements include ideas that are intuitively appealing to students, but which will prove to be incorrect upon reading the text. At least one statement should be written in such a way as to force students to interpret large segments of text such as a paragraph or two. This prevents the exercise from turning into a simple decoding exercise. Some statements are worded in such a way as to provoke critical thinking about the key concepts. Rather than true/false statements, they are somewhat vague or interpretational. Based on either the students prior knowledge or on the material being presented, students might disagree with one another and provide some valid evidence for either side of the argument, both before and after the reading. Some statements may not have a correct answer – it is a good idea to include some statements to which even the teacher does not have an answer. These can stimulate great discussion leading to deeper understanding of the subject matter. A good anticipation guide does not need a key, it provokes argument and discussion.
___1. Dogs, cats, elephants, and humans are alike. ___2. Scientists know exactly how many different types of plants and animals exist on this planet. ___3. When scientists classify things, they are putting them in groups of things that are alike. ___4. Elephants, fleas, people, and fish are all members of the same phylum and the same kingdom. ___5. Elephants, fleas, people, and fish are all members of the same phylum and the same kingdom, but not of the same class or of the same species. ___6. If two living things are members of the same species, that means that they are also members of the same genus and members of the same family, and members of the same kingdom. ___7. Not everyone in this room right now is a member of the same order. ___8. The first person who classified living organisms did it by how things appeared, but now, we use other features too.
___1. Most of the people in the north part of Africa live near a large body of water. ___2. Most people of North African countries dress differently than Americans, and many of them do not respect the beliefs and values of Americans and Europeans. ___3.The Nile river runs right through the middle of a giant desert. ___4. The Nile River is so long that you could sail from the Mediterranean Sea to the center of Africa. ___5. Egypt has many different geographic features like lakes, rivers, deserts, peninsulas, etc. ___6. It is good to be a farmer if you live near a large river because the river, when it floods, brings new fresh soil down from the mountains. When the river goes down again, rich soil is left for farmers to grow their crops. ___7. When the Egyptian government built the Aswan High Dam, they provided the people of Egypt with many new benefits such as water for irrigation of new farmland in the desert. ___8. When the Egyptian government built the Aswan High Dam, they provided the people of Egypt with many new problems. ___9. Egyptians built the first skyscrapers. ___10. One problem that Egypt has is that it sells many different products to the rest of the world, but it buys more stuff from other countries than it sells to them.
___1. The expression x2 means x raised to the second power. ___2. The expression 26.3 X 104 means twenty-six point three times 10 to the fourth power and is the same as 26,300,000. ___3. Using powers of ten to write large numbers is an easy way to keep numbers small. ___4. Numbers written in standard form always have a decimal in them, and there is usually one digit to the right of the decimal. ___5. Every time the exponent of ten increases by one, the decimal moves one place to the right. ___6. It is easy to figure out very large or very small numbers in your head by using powers of ten. ___7. Numbers written in scientific notation always have a decimal in them, and there is always one digit to the right of the decimal.
___1. Sectionalism was so strong in the 1850s that even national political parties sometimes split along Northern and Southern lines over the slavery issue---and into which territories slavery would spread. ___2. Because of the Fugitive Slave Act, it became legal to own slaves in the Northern States in the 1850s. ___3. The Fugitive Slave Act backfired in a way, since it allowed Northerners to see how slaves were treated. ___4. One way that people in the North became aware of the conditions of slavery was through a famous novel that was published about slaves and their lives. ___5. Popular sovereignty means rule by the people, and in the 1850s, it meant that the people who settled in the new territories would make their own decisions about slavery. ___6. Popular sovereignty in the newly-created territories of Kansas and Nebraska would mean that the Missouri Compromise of forbidding slavery north of a certain line---was null & void. ___7. Once the decision was made to have the settlers of the new Kansas and Nebraska Territories decide for themselves whether to be a slave or free territory, radical people from both pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups moved into the territory---leading to a pretty messy election. ___8. In the end, democracy usually wins, and territorial issues such as slavery were settled peacefully. ___9. People from Kansas finally settled the slavery issue by writing a constitution of their own.
THE DAILY COMPONENTS OF THE MAX TEACHING PROCESS SAM – The Skill Acquisition Model 1. Introduction and Modeling of the Skill 2. Guided Practice in the Skill 3. Reporting on Use of the Skill ** CLEM – The Cooperative Learning Model Two Important Elements of Successful Cooperative Learning: 1. Heterogeneous Groups 2. A Real Problem to Be Solved 3-Step Process of Successful Cooperative Learning: 1. Individual Written Work Commitment 2. Small Group Work* Consensus 3. Large Group Discussion Mediation/Arbitration MAX – The Three Steps of the MAX Teaching Framework
Essential Elements of Successful Cooperative Learning: A Real Problem to Be Solved Heterogeneous Groups Three-Step Process of Cooperative Learning: Individual Written Work = Commitment Small Group Work = Consensus Large Group Consensus = Discussion
Lucys Dilemma After checking the log it was obvious that I had been doing far too much LSD. As a result my max VO2 was bound to suffer. It was obviously a time to attempt some fartleking. I wondered if the Gore-tex and polypropylene would hinder my attempt at using speed. If so, perhaps a quick deuce would, just as well, serve the purpose of the day. 1. How did Lucy know she had been doing too much LSD? a)flashbacks b) checking her log c) fatigue 2. How could she improve her max VO2? using more speed b) occasional marijuana use c) Fartleking 3. What might hinder use of speed? polypropylene b) Gore-tex c) both of these 4. What might she substitute for speed? a) polypropylene b) a quick deuce c) more LSD
MAX DAILY LESSON PLAN: Example TOPIC: America Moves Toward WarDATE:2/2/8 OBJECTIVES: Power Standard 16.4 – Analyze steps the U.S. took prior to the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor to prepare for war. MATERIALS: Text Book KEY VOCAB. TERMS: Axis Powers, Lead-Lease Act, Allies, Atlantic Charter, Tojo, Neutrality, Infamy MOTIVATION: Preview ACQUISITION: Guided Reading Procedure EXTENSION: FFW, Did the US provoke Japan into attacking us to enter the war in Europe? Does that type of thing happen today? Why or Why Not?
The Way It Shouldnt Be 1. Students have no connection to what they are to learn because they did not read the homework assignment and they do not connect to their prior knowledge. 2. Teacher has students copy down vocabulary words and look up definitions for them. 3.Round-robin reading. Students are told to copy down notes the teacher has provided. 4. Students fill in spaces on worksheets created by textbook publisher. 5. Students are told that this material will be on the test on Friday. 6.Little or no verbal interaction occurs, and no one learns very much, but the class is quiet and orderly. The Way It Sometimes Is ? The Way It Can Be With MAX ?
THE WAY IT SOMETIMES IS… % of students have completed the assigned reading. 2. Most students have no clue about the assignment or the concepts they should have learned from the text. 3. Teacher attempts to teach concepts by lecture, questions, probes for understanding, video, notes, etc. 4. All students have some level of conceptual understanding. 5. None have improved their learning skills. The teacher did all the work! 6. The hidden message is that students dont have to read – the teacher will tell them all they need to know. This is the way my class usually went for years, moderately successful
The Way It Can be (Is) with MAX Teacher helps students link prior knowledge to the days lesson. Students establish their purposes for learning. Students actively probe text in attempt to satisfy their need for understanding. Students help one another construct understanding of subject matter. Intelligent discussion occurs with all students having complete knowledge base with which to work. All students use the vocabulary of the discipline. Students perform meaningful reflection for homework. REALLY? YOU BET!
Quiz 1. Instead of fartleking, what would be a good substitute for speed? _____________________ 2. In most cases, reading is not taught beyond the ___________ grade. 3. A ubiquitous and valuable tool for learning is the __________________, if used properly.
WITH MAX TEACHING, PRACTICALLY SPEAKING, YOU… 1. Preview the reading. 2. Talk about the reading, together in class. 3. Make a prediction about the reading. 4. Briefly, have the kids talk about the reading with their peers. 5. Short whole class discussion about the reading. Introduce the literacy skill and model it to the class. 6. Actually read the reading with a purpose, demonstrating guided practice in using the skill. 7. Express your thinking by writing about the reading. 8. Share your written commitment about the reading with peers in you cooperative learning group. 9. Come to some consensus about the group commitment about the reading. 10. Share and discuss your group consensus about the reading with the teacher/class, working toward a group agreement or consensus. 11. Take the consensus about the reading and make a practical application or solve a real world problem. 12. Organize the days activities about the reading in your Two Column Notes. Now, in a typical MAX Teaching Daily Process Activity, each student has processed the reading at least 12X.