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The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation Implementing the DAL – A Phased Approach DAL/DQR Workshop Brussels, 19-20 February 2013 Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation Implementing the DAL – A Phased Approach DAL/DQR Workshop Brussels, 19-20 February 2013 Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation Implementing the DAL – A Phased Approach DAL/DQR Workshop Brussels, February 2013 Presented by: Miguel Rodrigues Paulo SES unit EUROCONTROL

2 2 Phased Approach PREPARATION DEFINITION PRE DEPLOYMENT POST DEPLOYMENT Designing the overarching process for handling aeronautical data and aeronautical information Defining the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Validating the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Implementing and monitoring the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Demonstrating compliance

3 3 Preparation Phase (1) Prepare the Data Quality Assurance Plan (DQAP) How data quality will be addressed in relation to the objectives of the DAL Specification Conduct the Safety Assessments for new or upgraded systems Article 10(3) […] any changes to the existing systems […] or the introduction of new systems are preceded by a safety assessment, including hazard identification, risk assessment and mitigation Demonstrate that your ISO 9001:2008 Certificate complies with the DAL Objectives in ANNEX J Develop a Safety Policy Procedures to address the safety management objectives from Annex VII, Part B of the IR Define the roles and responsibilities Develop a Security Policy Procedures to address the security management objectives from Annex VII, Part C of the IR

4 4 Preparation Phase (2) Data Quality Assurance Plan (DQAP) Planned partys Overarching Process, describing the systems, their constituents and associated procedures involved in the origination, production, storage, handling, processing, transfer and distribution of aeronautical data and aeronautical information Data and products are handled and comply with the relevant standards and specifications (e.g. EUROCONTROL Specifications, ICAO standards) Data and products are complete, correct and provided in a timely manner History of data and products is traceable Criteria for compliance Start with ANNEX B CONFORMITY MATERIAL Text of the Objective Scope, the applicability and what should be the key or relevant aspects to be considered Timelines for implementation Partial compliances or non-compliances

5 5 Definition Phase (1) Work Instructions Define work instructions giving the details of the set of actions that are undertaken relating to each process of the systems from the party overarching process Minimum content Involve relevant stakeholders and use relevant published material Classify the Work Instructions: Origination, Data Checking, Data Processing or Other Assign DPALs to the Work Instructions Based only on the DAL or also in the degree of reliance Develop a Work Instruction Implementation Plan (contingency, responsibilities, training) Get approval of the Work Instruction at the Organisation functional level

6 6 Definition Phase (2) Constituents List the constituents that are part of the systems included in the party overarching process Document the constituent operational requirements (defining the required operational functionality, performance and integrity) Classify the constituents: Origination, Data Checking, Data Processing or Other Assign TQLs to the Constituents Based only on the DAL or also in the degree of reliance Select the software safety standard to be followed (for software based constituents)

7 © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited. Tools and Software DAL/DQR Workshop EUROCONTROL Brussels Roy Langridge /20 © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

8 Background Role of Tools in the Data Chain Data Assurance Levels – Tools and Software Software Safety Assurance – What Does it Mean? Principle of Software Assurance Levels Air Traffic Control - Application EUROCAE ED-153 and CEN Technical Specification Recommendations Summary Contents © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

9 Commission Regulation (EU) 73/2010 contains a number of requirements that relate to tools and software. These are intended to ensure that data quality is both achieved and maintained throughout the data process: Even when being automatically processed. Indeed, the fact that Commission Regulation (EU) 73/2010 promotes automation / digital transfer brings new risks which must be managed. These risks must be understood, managed and mitigated to ensure that the tools themselves do not either contribute data errors or fail to detect errors. Background © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

10 Traditionally, a limited number of tools were used in the data chain: Survey equipment; Word processors; NOTAM facilities; Printers etc. Over the past few years, this list has been extended as the data chain has become more electronic-based: EAD; GIS; eAIP tools. Nonetheless, the data has mainly still been managed in a human readable form with manual processing. Background: Role of Tools in the Data Chain (1) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

11 The provisions of Commission Regulation (EU) 73/2010 enforce changes to these methods of working. Digital transfer will become the norm, with systems being used for the delivery and receipt of data. An increased level of metadata will need to be managed in association with the core data. ICAO requirements are changing also: Electronic terrain and obstacle data requirements lead to a significant increase in the quantity of data to be handled. New tools will be needed throughout the data chain: It is likely that common tools used by many actors will be seen. Background: Role of Tools in the Data Chain (2) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

12 The DAL specification contains a number of objectives that must be met by tools and software. These are allocated the DAL-TS prefix: DAL-TS-010 – DAL-TS-250; DAL-TS-500 – DAL-TS-540. The objectives apply to: Existing tools; Minor modifications to existing tools; New tools or upgraded tools*. Article 2(40) of Regulation (EC) No 549/2004 defines an upgrade as any modification that changes the operational characteristics of a system. Data Assurance Levels – Tools and Software (1) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

13 The DAL objectives are established primarily to ensure that an appropriate level of assurance is obtained from the tools: Through their specification, design, implementation, testing, putting into service and operation. However, key to the objectives is an understanding of the level of reliance that is placed upon the tool: If it is supposed to catch an error and fails to, will it be caught elsewhere in the process? If it introduces an error, will this be caught elsewhere in the process? This is addressed by the allocation of a Tool Qualification Level (TQL) for each tool: TQL1 – TQL3. Data Assurance Levels – Tools and Software (2) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

14 Some basic principles are applied: Tools should have well defined requirements: Tool Operational Requirement. Tools are classified depending on their purpose: Data processing; Data checking; Data origination (measurement); Other. Data checking tool cannot amend data values; Security should be considered in development, as well as in operation; Tools should be validated against their requirements; Their introduction into service should be planned: Including the need for staff training, etc. Data Assurance Levels – Tools and Software (3) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

15 Software Safety Assurance is a phrase that is often used but which can be misunderstood. In essence, it means the degree of confidence that a software tool will not behave in such a way that it may result in a safety incident: If you consider the AIS, the tool itself would not be unsafe, however, it may result in data that is incorrect which, when used, leads to a safety incident: Key point: the data itself is not unsafe. Software Safety Assurance – What Does it Mean? © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

16 Safety assurance is achieved by understanding the risks to safety and ensuring that they are mitigated. Software Safety Assurance: Principle of Software Safety Assurance Levels (1) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

17 Software is often developed using the V model: Good to use this to explain software safety assurance. Software Safety Assurance: Principle of Software Safety Assurance Levels (2) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

18 Such software safety assurance processes are already applied within the aviation domain: For both ground-based and airborne components. ATC systems are developed in accordance with software safety assurance standards: And have been for many years. Most ANSPs will have some knowledge of such standards: Although not common within the AIS. Software Safety Assurance: Air Traffic Control - Application © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

19 The application of software safety assurance should utilise a formal process. EUROCAE developed ED-153 Guidelines for ANS Software Safety Assurance. This refers to the interoperability regulation and describes it relationship as guidance to this regulation, as follows: This document provides guidance aiming to partially satisfy EC regulations (552/2004, 482/2008). Therefore, both safety regulatory requirements (482/2008) as well as Interoperability (552/2004) aspects of Software are addressed by this document. Software Safety Assurance: EUROCAE ED-153 and CEN Technical Specification (1) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

20 The guidance provided indicates what must be achieved as a minimum for each level of assurance needed: SWAL 1 through to SWAL 4. The guidance provided is sound and, whilst the terminology may be a little confusing to those unfamiliar with it, can be relatively easily applied. The European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) has also identified the need for standardisation of software safety assurance. It has developed a draft Technical Specification (TS ) which is currently under final review. Software Safety Assurance: EUROCAE ED-153 and CEN Technical Specification (2) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

21 This technical specification states in its introduction: This Technical Specification specifies the Technical, Operational and Maintenance requirements for Software Assurance Levels to support the demonstration of compliance with some elements of the Essential Requirements Safety and Principles governing the construction of systems of the Regulation (EC 552/2004) of the European Parliament and of the Council on the interoperability of the European Air Traffic network (the Interoperability regulation). It should be noted, however, that the actual requirements specified in the technical specification refer, in the main, to specific sections EUROCAE ED-153. Software Safety Assurance: EUROCAE ED-153 and CEN Technical Specification (3) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

22 Have a clearly documented understanding (requirement) for all tools: For those developed in-house, bought-in or COTS. Consider whether as an organisation you are still able / willing to develop tools yourself: Formality may need to be increased, new skills gained and, possibly, more resource provided. If approved, use CEN TS for the application of software safety assurance: Implies the use of EUROCAE ED-153 also; For bespoke developments manufactured on your behalf, mandate that this is applied. Recommendations (1) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

23 Consider applying the same safety assurance regime for hardware tools, as well as for software: The main principles are the same. If you are procuring a bespoke development from a manufacturer, ensure that it applies mature development processes: Look for evidence / counter-evidence of sound development: A high number of bugs in released software may be indicative of a lack of control in the development processes. Finally, dont be scared! The DAL objectives can look very prescriptive, but they are not that bad: Just apply them in a sensible manner for your organisation. Recommendations (2) © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

24 Tools are an essential component of the data chain: Hardware and software. They can result in risks to the quality of data and must be managed. Guidance exists for the safety assurance of software that has been developed to meet the requirements of SES. Similar approaches may be applied for hardware. Requirements are essential: If you do not define what the tool should do, how do you know it does it? Summary © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

25 Thank you for your attention. Any questions? © 2013, Mileridge Limited. No part of this presentation may be reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Mileridge Limited.

26 26 Definition Phase (3) Error Reporting Define an effective error reporting, measurement and corrective process Mechanism for data errors Mechanism for work instructions and constituent errors Most of the objectives for these mechanisms are in ANNEX J Personnel Define the set of skills and competency requirements Define a training/briefing program ICAO requirements and standards (supplements, amendments and NOTAM procedures, update cycles…) ADQ IR requirements

27 27 Definition Phase (4) Data Suppliers Identify all data suppliers Establish Formal Arrangements Agreed data set Agreed data exchange format Security requirements Security Define secure areas protection against physical damage or degradation protected from unauthorised access Define requirements for security assessment and clearance Define a contingency plan to address eventual loss of ability to access or publish data

28 28 Pre-Deployment Phase (1) Validation of the partys overarching process [independent validation] All the work instructions are defined Validation of work instructions [independent validation] & [internal validation] Validation of constituents [independent validation] & [internal validation] New or upgraded constituents Existing constituents

29 29 Pre-Deployment Phase (2) Validation of the error reporting mechanisms Data error reporting mechanism [independent validation] Work instruction and constituents error reporting mechanism [independent validation] Validation of the data set [independent validation] Ensure completeness (all aeronautical features in Appendix 1 of ICAO Annex 15 and in ED99A – Airport Mapping Requirements) Ensure any missing data item is declared Validate the procedure to annotate ADQ non-compliant data (Article 7(2)) Validation of the data exchange mechanism [independent validation] Direct electronic connection Exchange Format Mechanism for integrity protection

30 30 Pre-Deployment Phase (3) Personnel Validation of the set of skills and competency requirements [independent validation] Validation of the training/briefing program [independent validation] Data Suppliers Validation of the Formal Arrangements [independent validation] process for contingency for continuity process for handling errors/inconsistencies Security Perform basic employment checks Validation of the contingency plan for the eventual loss of ability to access or publish data [independent validation] Safety Safety Policy shall be communicated to all employees

31 31 Deployment Phase (1) Data Origination Request Procedures Ensure currency of the requested data Data Exchange Procedures Authentication of data originators (authorised source) Reasonableness checks Independent verification of data handled manually Data verification (integrity) and validation (accuracy, resolution, completeness) procedures probability-based sampling positional accuracy of critical data items shall be validated by direct methods manually derived objects shall be validated by appropriate visualisation techniques

32 32 Deployment Phase (2) Data Protection Procedures Encryption Digital Certification Non-repudiation Protect the network (malicious and/or unauthorised access) Protect stored data (malicious and/or unauthorised access) Archiving and back-up Synchronisation of shadowed data Data Consistency Procedures Ensure consistency between data published in several publications

33 33 Deployment Phase (3) Data Timeliness Procedures Meet publication deadlines Handle last minute changes/cancellations Error Reporting Procedures Adequacy of the mitigation actions for work instructions and constituents errors shall be independently validated Personnel Procedures Retain (or have access) to a sufficient level of qualified and competent staff

34 34 Deployment Phase (4) Formal Arrangements Procedures Monitor compliance with the Formal Arrangement requirements Security Procedures Monitor periodically security regulations, standards and notices and use them to update the Security Management Procedures Safety Procedures Monitor periodically safety regulations, standards and notices and use them to update the Safety Management Procedures

35 35 Post-Deployment Phase (1) Data Quality Assurance Summary (DQAS) Provide the arguments and evidence for compliance and/or partial compliance with the objectives of the DAL Specification Compliance statement Documents demonstrating compliance Description of the new overarching process Evidence of the independent validation/verification activities Results of the Safety Assessments Partial compliances and/or non-compliances Justifications that the partial compliances or non-compliances do not adversely affect the quality of the data List of planned corrective actions for partial compliances or non- compliances

36 36 Phased Approach PREPARATION DEFINITION PRE DEPLOYMENT POST DEPLOYMENT Designing the overarching process for handling aeronautical data and aeronautical information Defining the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Validating the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Implementing and monitoring the processes, constituents and their associated procedures Demonstrating compliance


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