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Relating Problem & Solution Structures Bashar Nuseibeh & Michael Jackson Computing Department, The Open University, UK David Bush National Air Traffic.

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Presentation on theme: "Relating Problem & Solution Structures Bashar Nuseibeh & Michael Jackson Computing Department, The Open University, UK David Bush National Air Traffic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relating Problem & Solution Structures Bashar Nuseibeh & Michael Jackson Computing Department, The Open University, UK David Bush National Air Traffic Services, UK

2 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 The Open University One of the worlds 11 mega-universities: The UKs largest university (200,000+ students) Specialist in distance education and e-learning Computing Department research areas: Software Engineering Human-Computer Interaction Educational Technology

3 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Requirements & Architectures Requirements Denote stakeholder goals & expectations Are expressed in the vocabulary of the problem world Can conflict & change Architectures Denote systems structure Are expressed in terms of components & inter-connections in the solution world Should be stable & robust

4 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Problem and Solution Structures The development process constructs: problem structures (requirements), and solution structures (architecture). For large systems that develop and evolve: there is often a discontinuity between the two structures; this leads to poor traceability of design decisions back to requirements, and inadequate change impact analysis.

5 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Research Areas Development Processes - There is a need for closer intertwining of requirements & architecture development. Development Products - There is a need to develop and relate patterns of requirements & architecture.

6 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 The Twin Peaks Process: weaving requirements & architectures Implementation Dependence DependentIndependent General Detailed Level of Detail Architectur e Requirements Specification

7 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Problem Frames A problem frame defines the shape of a problem for which there is an known solution. Separates phenomena of world from machine; separates assumptions (domain properties) from requirements. Simple problem frames can be composed together to produce more complex (and realistic) composite frames. A number of basic problem frames have already been identified by Jackson (2000).

8 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Problem and solution patterns Requirements Design Architecture Design Patterns Architectural Styles Problem Frames Components

9 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Research Issues Searching for and identifying (basic & composite) patterns of requirements and architectures in existing ATM systems. Relating these patterns to provide more effective traceability and (change) impact analysis. Using these relationships to provide more effective reuse between different ATM systems and their development.

10 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Research Methodology Case study-driven investigation Initially, document-driven analysis Eventually, stakeholder-driven elicitation Precedent: working with NATS on STCA & MSAW.

11 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Desirable Endpoint? Architectural stability in the face of inevitable requirements volatility. Maintainable systems though improved change impact analysis, traceability, and reuse. Applicable to technical, socio-technical, and business systems?

12 © Bashar Nuseibeh, The Open University, 2001 Architectural Styles Architectural styles define the shape or structure of a solution that has some known characteristics. Describe components & interconnection types. An architecture is a particular instance of an architectural style. Examples: pipe-and-filter and blackboard.


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