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Course Instructor: Aisha Azeem

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1 Course Instructor: Aisha Azeem
Architectural Design Course Instructor: Aisha Azeem

2 Software architecture
The design process for identifying the sub-systems making up a system and the framework for sub-system control and communication is architectural design. The output of this design process is a description of the software architecture.

3 Architectural design An early stage of the system design process.
Represents the link between specification and design processes. Often carried out in parallel with some specification activities. It involves identifying major system components and their communications.

4 The architecture of a packing robot control system

5 Architectural abstraction
Architecture in the small is concerned with the architecture of individual programs. At this level, we are concerned with the way that an individual program is decomposed into components. Architecture in the large is concerned with the architecture of complex enterprise systems that include other systems, programs, and program components. These enterprise systems are distributed over different computers, which may be owned and managed by different companies.

6 Advantages of explicit architecture
Stakeholder communication Architecture may be used as a focus of discussion by system stakeholders. System analysis Means that analysis of whether the system can meet its non-functional requirements is possible. Large-scale reuse The architecture may be reusable across a range of systems Product-line architectures may be developed.

7 Architectural representations
Simple, informal block diagrams showing entities and relationships are the most frequently used method for documenting software architectures. But these have been criticized because they lack semantics, do not show the types of relationships between entities nor the visible properties of entities in the architecture. Depends on the use of architectural models. The requirements for model semantics depends on how the models are used.

8 Box and line diagrams Very abstract - they do not show the nature of component relationships nor the externally visible properties of the sub-systems. However, useful for communication with stakeholders and for project planning.

9 Use of architectural models
As a way of facilitating discussion about the system design A high-level architectural view of a system is useful for communication with system stakeholders and project planning it is not cluttered with detail. Stakeholders can relate to it and understand an abstract view of the system. They can then discuss the system as a whole without being confused by detail. As a way of documenting an architecture that has been designed The aim here is to produce a complete system model that shows the different components in a system, their interfaces and their connections.

10 Architectural design decisions
Architectural design is a creative process so the process differs depending on the type of system being developed. However, a number of common decisions span all design processes and these decisions affect the non-functional characteristics of the system.

11 Architectural design decisions
Is there a generic application architecture that can be used? How will the system be distributed? What architectural styles are appropriate? What approach will be used to structure the system? How will the system be decomposed into modules? What control strategy should be used? How will the architectural design be evaluated? How should the architecture be documented?

12 Architecture reuse Systems in the same domain often have similar architectures that reflect domain concepts. Application product lines are built around a core architecture with variants that satisfy particular customer requirements. The architecture of a system may be designed around one of more architectural patterns or ‘styles’. These capture the essence of an architecture and can be instantiated in different ways.

13 Architecture and system characteristics
Performance Localize critical operations and minimize communications. Use large rather than fine-grain components. Security Use a layered architecture with critical assets in the inner layers. Safety Localize safety-critical features in a small number of sub-systems. Availability Include redundant components and mechanisms for fault tolerance. Maintainability Use fine-grain, replaceable components.

14 Architectural views What views or perspectives are useful when designing and documenting a system’s architecture? What notations should be used for describing architectural models? Each architectural model only shows one view or perspective of the system. It might show how a system is decomposed into modules, how the run-time processes interact or the different ways in which system components are distributed across a network. For both design and documentation, you usually need to present multiple views of the software architecture.

15 view model of software architecture
A logical view, which shows the key abstractions in the system as objects or object classes. A process view, which shows how, at run-time, the system is composed of interacting processes. A development view, which shows how the software is decomposed for development. A physical view, which shows the system hardware and how software components are distributed across the processors in the system. Related using use cases or scenarios

16 Architectural patterns
Patterns are a means of representing, sharing and reusing knowledge. An architectural pattern is a stylized description of good design practice, which has been tried and tested in different environments. Patterns should include information about when they are and when the are not useful. Patterns may be represented using tabular and graphical descriptions.

17 The Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern

18 The organization of the Model-View-Controller

19 Web application architecture using the MVC pattern

20 Layered architecture Used to model the interfacing of sub-systems.
Organises the system into a set of layers (or abstract machines) each of which provide a set of services. Supports the incremental development of sub-systems in different layers. When a layer interface changes, only the adjacent layer is affected. However, often artificial to structure systems in this way.

21 The Layered architecture pattern

22 A generic layered architecture

23 The architecture of the LIBSYS system

24 Repository architecture
Sub-systems must exchange data. This may be done in two ways: Shared data is held in a central database or repository and may be accessed by all sub-systems; Each sub-system maintains its own database and passes data explicitly to other sub-systems. When large amounts of data are to be shared, the repository model of sharing is most commonly used as this is an efficient data sharing mechanism.

25 The Repository pattern

26 A repository architecture for an IDE

27 Client-server architecture
Distributed system model which shows how data and processing is distributed across a range of components. Can be implemented on a single computer. Set of stand-alone servers which provide specific services such as printing, data management, etc. Set of clients which call on these services. Network which allows clients to access servers.

28 The Client–server pattern

29 A client–server architecture for a film library

30 Pipe and filter architecture
Functional transformations process their inputs to produce outputs. May be referred to as a pipe and filter model (as in UNIX shell). Variants of this approach are very common. When transformations are sequential, this is a batch sequential model which is extensively used in data processing systems. Not really suitable for interactive systems.

31 The pipe and filter pattern

32 An example of the pipe and filter architecture

33 Application architectures
Application systems are designed to meet an organizational need. As businesses have much in common, their application systems also tend to have a common architecture that reflects the application requirements. A generic application architecture is an architecture for a type of software system that may be configured and adapted to create a system that meets specific requirements.

34 Use of application architectures
As a starting point for architectural design. As a design checklist. As a way of organizing the work of the development team. As a means of assessing components for reuse. As a vocabulary for talking about application types.

35 Examples of application types
Data processing applications Data driven applications that process data in batches without explicit user intervention during the processing. Transaction processing applications Data-centred applications that process user requests and update information in a system database. Event processing systems Applications where system actions depend on interpreting events from the system’s environment. Language processing systems Applications where the users’ intentions are specified in a formal language that is processed and interpreted by the system.

36 Application type examples
Focus here is on transaction processing and language processing systems. Transaction processing systems E-commerce systems; Reservation systems. Language processing systems Compilers; Command interpreters.

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