Presentation on theme: "FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE and UAS (22 September 2010)"— Presentation transcript:
1 FIXED SATELLITE SERVICE and UAS (22 September 2010) ACP WGF23/IP26Abdolmajid Khalilzadeh
2 COMMERCIAL SATELLITES The FSS may be able to fulfill the UAS spectrum requirements without the need for a new AMS(R)S allocationExisting commercial FSS systems at Ku and Ka-band offer immediate access to spectrum for UASITU-R studies have shown that the commercial Ku/Ka bands can support UAS control links and meet the desired UAS link availability.
3 UAS OPERATING UNDER FSS Requires modification of ITU Radio Regulations to permit UAS to communicate with a FSS satelliteRequires a WRC Resolution that contains the UAS technical and regulatory requirementsThe performance, responsibilities and liabilities of the FSS and UAS operators would be specified in a commercial contractUAS would not be operating under the AMS(R)S service allocation, but rather as an FSS application
4 Non-Planned Ku Band FSS Frequencies Space-to-Earth Direction10.95 – GHz11.45 – GHz11.70 – GHz (Region 2)12.20 – GHz (Region 3)12.50 – GHz (Regions 1 and 3)Earth-to-Space Direction14.00 – GHz
6 SATELLITE CHARACTERISTICS Long lifetime (≥ 15 years)Low satellite and transponder failure ratesHigh EIRP and G/T levels over large geographic areasWell suited for links that utilize small transmit/receive antennasHigh radio link availabilityConnectivity over large geographic areas, which terrestrial links cannot provideMultiple transponders are available on each satellite, e.g. 24 Ku-band 36 MHz transpondersBandwidths typically range from 24 to 120 MHz – the most common bandwidth being 36 MHz
7 SATELLITE COVERAGE Uplink Coverage Downlink Coverage Note: This is an example coverage map; actual coverage varies depending onactual satellite design.
8 COMMERCIAL SATELLITE CAPACITY TRANSPONDER LEASINGCustomer can lease all or portion of a transponderTransponder can be leased on a non-premptible basisCarrier cannot be moved to restore another carrierBACK-UP CAPACITYDue to large number of satellites and transponders, back-up (bandwidth) capacity can be provided.Back-up capacity available on the same satelliteBack-up capacity available on another satellite
9 LINK DEGRADATIONA satellite link can be degraded by two primary sourcesAtmospheric effectsAdjacent satellite interferenceTypical commercial satellite link availabilities range from 99.50% to 99.96%
10 ADJACENT SATELLITE INTERFERNCE A satellite link is subject to interference from the transmissions of other co-frequency satellite networksInterference can occur in the Earth-to-space direction or in the space-to-Earth direction.Adjacent satellite interference are managed through ITU coordination.
11 ADJACENT SATELLITE INTERFERNCE ES1ES2ES31234ACBDSAT 1SAT 2SAT 3UAEFGH2º±0.05ºIJNote: 2º orbital separation is typical of the separation between adjacent satellites
12 COORDINATIONSatellite operators coordinate the maximum power and EIRP density level of their transmissions, the off-axis gain characteristics of their antennas and the placement of any high power density carriers, e.g. TV/FMA known and stable interference environmentLinks are designed to withstand the expected interferenceInternationally, coordination agreements are contained in a formal document that is approved by the involved satellite operators and their respective administrationsDomestically, a formal agreement may or may not be required – depends on the regulations of each administration
13 ATMOSPHERIC DEGRADATION Rain is the primary atmospheric source of link degradation at Ku and Ka-band frequenciesThe effects of rain can be overcome in various waysIncreasing carrier power levelChanging the carrier modulation & FEC schemeIncreasing the transmitting and/or receiving antenna sizeTypical commercial Ku-band link availabilities range from 99.50% to 99.96%
14 UAS REDUNDANCYAt some point in time, links will degrade or drop-out for various reasonsUAS systems need to incorporate hardware redundancyUAS systems need to incorporate spectrum redundancyCapacityFrequency