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Chapter 1 Working with Children, Adolescents, and their parents.

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1 Chapter 1 Working with Children, Adolescents, and their parents

2 Model of Developmental Levels  Basic needs –  Normal developmental problems –  Prevention –  Problem conceptualization–  Design and selection of assessment tools–  Application of developmentally appropriate interventions –  How young clients process information –  Areas of development (physical, cognitive, self, social, and emotional)

3 Developmental Characteristics of Early Childhood (2-5years)  -Physical Development: development of gross and fine motor skills (gross improves, running, jumping fine develops slowly, such as cutting, writing, drawing)   -Cognitive Development: preoperational thinking (death and divorce too abstract), animism, (lifelike qualities to inanimate objects, doll has pain) artificialism (people cause natural phenomena) imagination, language development, (understand everything, but struggle with abstract such as time)  - Self Development: egocentrism, high self esteem, increase in self control  - Social Development: associative play, difficulty engaging in cooperative play  - Emotional Development: limited vocabulary for feelings, limited understanding of other people’s emotions

4 Counseling Applications for Early Childhood  attention spans of 4-5 year olds are limited  Use variety of concrete techniques  Typical problems: difficulty engaging in cooperative play, taking things literally which can result in fear, situational problems (divorce, abuse, parent alcoholism)  EX: flash cards or feeling games, play therapy techniques in Chap 3)

5 Developmental Characteristics of Middle Childhood ( 6-11 ) - - PhysicalDevelopment: slow growth rate, high degree of physical self control - Cognitive Development: transitional period from 5-7 from preoperational to concrete operational, reach concrete operational stage at age 8, understand reversibility, reciprocity, identity, classification. Language capacity grows, but still relies on intonation vs. meaning and context - **Still struggle with abstract thoughts and make assumptions and jump to conclusions (friend sat at different lunch table = don’t like me) - - Self Development: expanding self understanding, development of internal locus of control, self criticism verses self confidence - ** age 8, they develop concept of their overall worth- Social Development: socialization with peers, group acceptance, peer pressure; by age 7, children become more pro-social, understand social cues Emotional Development: experience of more complex emotions (guilt, shame), understand capability of more than one feeling at a time, differentiate that they are not the cause of another’s emotional discomfort, increased ability to recognize and communicate feelings

6 Counseling Applications for Middle Childhood - Typical problems revolve around school, family, appearance, health, peer relationships, self concept, situational problems - Interventions: - Concrete interventions that help resolve - Visual and engaging - Limited ability to think logically and see possibilities - EX: thermometer for anger, role play, art and games

7 Developmental Characteristics of Early Adolescence (10-14)  Physical development: rapid physical changes, onset of puberty, growth spurts, variations in physical maturity, increase in sexual thoughts and feelings  Cognitive development: gradual shift from concrete to formal operational thinking  Self development: self definition and integration, autonomy verses dependency, imaginary audience  Social development: importance of peer relationships, developing more independence from parents, resist authority  Emotional development: emotional instability, increased emotional intensity (including anger), feelings are overwhelming

8 Counseling Application for Early Adolescence  Typical problems are:  Parents overreact this adolescents’ behaviors  Inability to effectively manage emotions  Excessive worry of looks, acceptance  Concerns of sexuality Interventions: Need to remember that formal operational thinking occurs gradually  Problem behaviors are often a result of incompetencies in thinking and reasoning  Adolescents need adult guidance  Counseling Groups  Integrating music (writing song lyrics)  Role play

9 Developmental Characteristics of Mid- Adolescence (15-18)  Physical development: males differ from females in terms of rate of development, very strong sexual urges  Cognitive development: continued development of formal operational thinking, characterized by abstract thinking and hypothesizing, still inconsistencies in thinking and behaving  Self development: independence, search for identity, questioning, experimenting and exploring, increased self confidence  Social development: peer relationships continue to be important, increase in intimate friendships, more social sensitivity, need for more autonomy from family  Emotional development: more emotionally stable, dependent on level of formal operational thinking, more emotional maturity

10 Counseling Applications for Mid-Adolescents Typical issues: Complex relationships, sexual intimacy Confusion/worry about future Interventions: Better able to express themselves better Create vision boards Role play Read stories of other teens who have experienced similar situations journaling

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