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Earth and Environmental Science Review for Final Exam Part 2 Covering Modules 9 - 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth and Environmental Science Review for Final Exam Part 2 Covering Modules 9 - 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth and Environmental Science Review for Final Exam Part 2 Covering Modules 9 - 16

2 Currents MODULE 9: Oceans and Beaches Rip Current: Cuts an opening in a sandbar and moves straight out into the ocean. Long Shore Current: Moving parallel to the shore carrying large amounts of sand. Short Distance Current: Surface currents that travel over short distances. Deep Current: Caused by differences in water densities.

3 Water density and wind patterns are two factors that cause ocean currents.. Map of average sea surface salinity. Credit: Right: NASA, Below: www.seos-project-edu Global belts of prevailing winds…www.seos-project-edu

4 Salinity and temperature are two factors that affect water density Average of horizontal and vertical brightness temperature for incidence angles below 30 degrees for a region of the South Pacific and Atlantic overlaying a map of salinity available from NOAA climatological data. According to the expected results the brightness temperature decreases for regions with higher salinity. Credits: SMOS-BEC

5 Beach erosion is natural Humans try to stop beach erosion by using 1.Sea walls 2.Channel dredging 3.And dune construction - 500 × 375 - by Nancy Cook Lauer - NOAA www.allhawaiinews.com500 × 375 - 1117 × 659 NOAA's Coastal Services Center woodsholegroup.wordpress.com1117 × 659

6 Upwelling When nutrient rich cold water rises to the surface millions of fish follow because of the food in the water. Coastal currents, surface water, and upwelling Credit: Credit: Work found at / CC BY-SA 3.0 (

7 Thermocline layer Has the greatest daily changes in temperature. (Picture: Map of average sea surface temperatures. Credit: More than 70% of the entire earth’s surface is covered by water.

8 El Niño is the phenomenon of ocean currents that changes weather patterns around the Earth. Sea surface temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (above). El Niño is characterized by unusually warm temperatures and La Niña by unusually cool temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. Anomalies (below) represent deviations from normal temperature values, with unusually warm temperatures shown in red and unusually cold anomalies shown in blue. Ocean temperature distribution (top panel) that characterize El Nino (left) and La Nina right episodes in the Pacific Ocean. Changes from mean temperatures are shown in the bottom panel.. Credit: NOAA

9 MODULE 10: Water Resources and Water Quality Fresh water Water that plants and animals need to drink makes up only about 3% of the earth’s water supply. Fresh water is found in rivers, lakes, icebergs and underground in aquifers. U.S. Department of the InteriorU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey URL: Page Contact Information: Howard Perlman Page Last Modified: Monday, 17-Mar-2014 11:03:28 EDTU.S. Geological SurveyHoward Perlman

10 Water Resources and Water Quality MODULE 10: The layers of an aquifer from bottom to top are: of saturation (All pores are filled with water.) 2. water table (the highest underground level at which the rocks and soil in a particular area are completely wet with water.) 3. zone of aeration (All pores are filled with air.) Top: www.srh.noaa.govTop: Right: nerrs.noaa.goRight:

11 The Water Cycle Condensation Precipitation Evapotranspiration

12 Fresh water to drink What makes an artesian well special? Water is under pressure in an artesian well. These wells are usually very deep and the water is cold. Protect fresh water supplies Conservation and alternative methods of obtaining fresh water are ways we can protect our drinking water supply. Ground WaterGround Water, USGS General Interest publication What is groundwater?What is groundwater?, USGS Open-File Report 93-643 Coastal Ground Water at RiskCoastal Ground Water at Risk, Saltwater Contamination along the Georgia coast Groundwater dischargeGroundwater discharge, USGS - The water cycle Ground-Water Depletion Across the Nation USGS Fact Sheet 103-03USGS Fact Sheet 103-03

13 MODULE 11: Atmosphere and Weather Systems Gases in the air Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. Animal respiration (breathing) requires Oxygen. Animal respiration releases Carbon Dioxide Trapped! Ultra Violet (UV) radiation from the sun is trapped by Ozone gas in the stratosphere. ( )

14 Acid rain forms as gases react with water vapor in the atmosphere and form acids which return to Earth’s surface in the form of precipitation. ( )

15 Map of major surface winds, Credit: CC-By-CN-SA, Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton CollegeImage 2 of 2 Winds blow from the ocean to land during the day because Atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases.

16 MODULE 12: Climate and Biomes Every living thing in an ecosystem is important because all living things play a role in an ecosystem no matter how big or how small. Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors

17 Biomes The interaction of organisms with their environment is the best definition of what an Ecosystem. Invasive species are those that are not native to an area, but have come in and they have no natural predators. They take over the habitats of native species. Labels: burmese python, invasive species Source is the Global Invasive Species Database. Images are from Wikimedia Commons and are under Creative Commons licenses or are copyright free: one, two, three.burmese pythoninvasive speciesGlobal Invasive Species Databaseonetwothree Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta ). Photo Credit: April Nobile, AntWeb, California Academy of Sciences, 2000-2008 NC is in the Temperate Deciduous Forest biome. Coastal plains, mountains and piedmont make up NC biomes. Coastal Plains is the largest. Vegetation and Climate are the 2 main factors that determine a biome.

18 MODULE 13: Air Pollution and Global Change Indoor air pollution carbon monoxide pet dander and Radon Picture by Environment Canada. Landfills Clay and plastic are used as liners in waste disposal at landfills.

19 Barrier Islands Formed by receding glaciers 18,000 years ago. Global warming is causing problems with the weather. Below: Creative Commons: Global Warming is also called Climate Change and it IS causing problems with the weather around the world.

20 Ozone Ground level ozone is dangerous and is a cause of photochemical smog. Stratospheric ozone protects us from UV (ultraviolet) radiation. - 540 × 327 - Search by image540 × 327Search by image Stratospheric ozone processes the stratospheric ozone layer shields life on Earth from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation.

21 MODULE 14: Meteorology What is the first step of a tornado formation? Wind traveling in two different directions. Convection is hot air rising and cool air sinking Rotation is a major indication of the type of weather phenomenon called a Tornado. A tornado descends from the mesocyclone of a thunderstorm over New Mexico. A. T. Willett/The Image Bank/­Getty Images­Getty Images

22 Thunderstorms and tornados are NOT associated with warm fronts. Tornadoes don't just pop into existence -- they develop out of thunderstorms, where there's already a steady, upward flow of warm, low- pressure air to get things started. ox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en- US:official&channel=sb&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=xscrU4feKKSQ0AHwo 4CIDA&sqi=2&pjf=1&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=933&bih=425#facrc=_&imgdii=_ &imgrc=_QgemEtK- wdS3M%253A%3BGhGtRhJdpjICOM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftamutimes.tam understorm%252F%3B1250%3B1013

23 Low pressure system A front Moist and sinking air is associated with a low pressure system. the probability of precipitation would be high. The boundary between a mass of warm air and a mass of cold air is called a front. Cold Fronts - Geography For Kids - By KidsGeo.www.kidsgeo.comCold Fronts - Geography For Kids - By - 288 × 216 - Search by imageCold Front288 × 216Search by image concepts/

24 The four stages of hurricane development Tropical wave tropical depression tropical storm hurricane - 356 × 200 - Search by imageKatrina Extreme: Mississippi Destruction356 × 200Search by image

25 Danger Eye Wall. The eye wall surrounds the eye. The strongest winds and heaviest rains are found in the eye wall, making it the most dangerous part of the hurricane. Hurricanes - Structure | State Climate Office of North - Structure | State Climate Office of North - 723 × 543 - Search by imageHurricane Eye Wall.723 × 543Search by image

26 The Coriolis effect describes how Earth’s rotation steers winds and surface ocean currents. Unlike land, air and water move freely (in the absence of obstacles). The Coriolis effect causes the path of a freely moving object to appear to curve. This is because Earth is rotating beneath the object. So even though the object's path is straight, it appears to curve. The curve appears to be to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears to be to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Right: (Coriolis Effect | CK-12 - 800 × 531Coriolis Effect | CK-12 Foundationwww.ck12.org800 × 531 The Earth's rotation makes global winds seem to curve. - 195 × 195 195 × 195 Is this an example of the Coriolis effect? Does Coriolis determine which direction water in a toilet will swirl? Unfortunately, no. Friction and the power of the flush have too big an influence. But in the atmosphere and oceans, Coriolis affects flow direction.

27 The Earth's rotation makes global winds seem to curve. This is the Coriolis effect. Coriolis Effect and Frictionwww.earthonlinemedia.comCoriolis Effect and - 400 × 300 - Search by imageFigure 6.9 The influence of the Coriolis force on wind. Courtesy NASA JPL (Source)400 × 300Search by image

28 MODULE 15: Planetary Motion Kepler determined the nature of the forces that keep the planets in their orbits. What was Kepler’s 2 nd law states: Each planet revolves so that an imaginary line connecting it to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal time intervals. The Astronomical Unit - Tutorials - The Heliocentric Revolutionastunit.comThe Astronomical Unit - Tutorials - The Heliocentric - 600 × 400 - Search by imageAnnounced first 2 laws of planetary motion in 1609. Announced 3rd in 1618.600 × 400Search by image

29 Elliptical The shape of an orbit is elliptical. NASA Satellites: April 2012nasa-spacestation-info.blogspot.comNASA Satellites: April - 707 × 480 - Search by image Elliptical Galaxies - Zoom - 311 × 237 - Search by image707 × 480Search by image Elliptical Galaxies - Zoom Astronomywww.enchantedlearning.com311 × 237Search by image

30 Precession Earth's axis slowly but continuously points in different directions in a path called precession. Credit: Visible Earth Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC To see a very short video showing precession click below.

31 Seasons The tilt of the earth as it circles the sun is the reason that we have seasons. NASA – NOAA - 413 × 227 -413 × 227

32 MODULE 16: The Sun’s Energy The sun produces energy through nuclear fusion. Right: File:Sun poster.svg From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Below: Taken by Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope on January 12, 2007, this image of the Sun reveals the filamentary nature of the plasma connecting regions of different magnetic polarity.Hinode

33 Radiation The term used to describe how the Sun heats the Earth is Radiation. energy-transfer/

34 The greenhouse effect Images courtesy of NASA : Climate Change: - 560 × 347 -Climate Change: Causesclimate.nasa.gov560 × 347 The process by which the sun's energy is absorbed by the Earth and re- radiated at longer wavelength.

35 Good luck on the final exam. “The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.“ – Edward Gibbon “I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.“ – Thomas Jefferson

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