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Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 1 Approaches to Frequency Planning for RRC-04/05 Nigel Laflin Rapporteur for Chapter 3 of the TG6/8 report.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 1 Approaches to Frequency Planning for RRC-04/05 Nigel Laflin Rapporteur for Chapter 3 of the TG6/8 report."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 1 Approaches to Frequency Planning for RRC-04/05 Nigel Laflin Rapporteur for Chapter 3 of the TG6/8 report

2 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 2 Protection of analogue television, digital broadcasting and other services Analogue television Need to address conditions for the protection of existing stations Need to address conditions for the protection of existing stations Administrations should indicate which of their existing and planned stations should be protected Administrations should indicate which of their existing and planned stations should be protected Administrations should ensure that their entries in ST61, GE89 and Master Register reflect the actual co-ordinated situation (see table A of TG 6/8 report) Administrations should ensure that their entries in ST61, GE89 and Master Register reflect the actual co-ordinated situation (see table A of TG 6/8 report) Digital broadcasting Need to address conditions for digital terrestrial television broadcasting currently recorded in the Master Register with favourable findings Need to address conditions for digital terrestrial television broadcasting currently recorded in the Master Register with favourable findings Other services Need to consider conditions for other services sharing the frequency bands 174 to 230 MHz and 470 to 862 MHz Need to consider conditions for other services sharing the frequency bands 174 to 230 MHz and 470 to 862 MHz

3 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 3 Coordination procedures (1) The new Agreement should include provisions and/or procedures for: Coordination of unresolved cases Coordination of unresolved cases Modifications to the Plan Modifications to the Plan The transition from analogue to the all digital broadcasting situation The transition from analogue to the all digital broadcasting situation Inter/intra-service protection of analogue television, digital broadcasting and other primary services – see table below Inter/intra-service protection of analogue television, digital broadcasting and other primary services – see table below Source of Interference Services to be protected Analogue TV Bands III, IV, V DigitalTV Digital Sound OtherServices Analogue TV assignments ST61/GE89 provisions To be established ST61/GE89 provisions Digital TV allotments/ assignments To be established Digital Sound allotments/assignments To be established

4 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 4 Coordination procedures (2) Coordination distances Identify which administrations might be affected when an administration proposes to modify a plan by changing the characteristics of an existing assignment or allotment, or add a new assignment or allotment Identify which administrations might be affected when an administration proposes to modify a plan by changing the characteristics of an existing assignment or allotment, or add a new assignment or allotment Examples for assignment planning are: Tables giving limiting distance as a function of effective radiated power, effective antenna height and the nature of the path under consideration (ST61 Agreement) Tables giving limiting distance as a function of effective radiated power, effective antenna height and the nature of the path under consideration (ST61 Agreement) Tables of distances between station in question and any point on the boundary of any other administration (GE89 Agreement ) Tables of distances between station in question and any point on the boundary of any other administration (GE89 Agreement ) And for allotment planning: The coordination distances based on standardised transmission reference values and separation distances (RJ88 Agreement) The coordination distances based on standardised transmission reference values and separation distances (RJ88 Agreement) Test points Test points may be used in planning to describe coverage of coordinated stations, allotment areas, assignment requirements, or the boundary of other services to be protected Test points may be used in planning to describe coverage of coordinated stations, allotment areas, assignment requirements, or the boundary of other services to be protected

5 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 5 Planning principles - general Planning process based on an inventory of administrations requirements Planning process based on an inventory of administrations requirements Equitable access to the frequency resources but account taken of the technical and economic constraints Equitable access to the frequency resources but account taken of the technical and economic constraints Use of the minimum number of channels to satisfy requirements Use of the minimum number of channels to satisfy requirements Each administration to decide on compatibility of digital plan with existing services in its own country and to indicate which existing and planned stations should be protected Each administration to decide on compatibility of digital plan with existing services in its own country and to indicate which existing and planned stations should be protected Proposed digital allotments/assignments open to bilateral or multilateral negotiation between administrations concerned Proposed digital allotments/assignments open to bilateral or multilateral negotiation between administrations concerned Based on results of planning exercises incompatibilities should be resolved by bi/multilateral discussions prior to Second Session Based on results of planning exercises incompatibilities should be resolved by bi/multilateral discussions prior to Second Session Planning provisions for countries not present Planning provisions for countries not present No account to be taken of low power digital assignments in the planning process – these can be entered later No account to be taken of low power digital assignments in the planning process – these can be entered later

6 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 6 Planning Bases Procedure for production of a plan Compatibility analysis: to identify incompatibilities arising from input requirements - appropriate responses to these problems would be considered by the Planning Conference Compatibility analysis: to identify incompatibilities arising from input requirements - appropriate responses to these problems would be considered by the Planning Conference Synthesis process: could be used to permit the rapid development of possible alternative frequency plans Synthesis process: could be used to permit the rapid development of possible alternative frequency plans Approaches to the Plan Modification of the existing Plans – may not lead to an optimum plan for some countries but easy to implement (e.g. via the conversion of analogue assignments to digital assignments) Modification of the existing Plans – may not lead to an optimum plan for some countries but easy to implement (e.g. via the conversion of analogue assignments to digital assignments) Completely new plan – greater spectrum utilisation efficiency but difficult to implement Completely new plan – greater spectrum utilisation efficiency but difficult to implement Combination of both – likely scenario to facilitate the requirements of all countries in the planning area Combination of both – likely scenario to facilitate the requirements of all countries in the planning area

7 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 7 Planning Scenario 1 All existing or planned analogue assignments would need to be protected from new digital assignments indefinitely Administration can decide for itself when any of its new digital requirements can be brought into operation Administration can decide for itself when any of its new digital requirements can be brought into operation The rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained The rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained No constraints on the transition procedure No constraints on the transition procedure Minimal impact on the analogue services Minimal impact on the analogue services Least potential for future digital development Least potential for future digital development May not offer the opportunity for full digital coverage May not offer the opportunity for full digital coverage

8 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 8 Planning Scenario 2 All existing or planned analogue assignments to be protected from new digital assignments, but the analogue assignments would be converted to digital and will form part of all-digital plan Administration can decide when its digital requirements can be brought into operation analogue assignments converted to digital assignments Administration can decide when its digital requirements can be brought into operation analogue assignments converted to digital assignments The rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained The rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained No constraints on the transition procedure No constraints on the transition procedure Reduced opportunities for digital services Reduced opportunities for digital services The spacing between digital stations (based on analogue network) may not be optimal The spacing between digital stations (based on analogue network) may not be optimal Potential interaction between digital requirements and assignments resulting from analogue conversions must be taken into account during the planning process Potential interaction between digital requirements and assignments resulting from analogue conversions must be taken into account during the planning process

9 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September 03 9 Planning Scenario 3 Analogue assignments can be converted to digital and incorporated in the new digital plan as required – no attempt to protect existing or planned analogue assignments Administration can decide for itself when new digital requirements are brought into operation – provided that unwanted interference is not caused to analogue assignments of a neighbour Administration can decide for itself when new digital requirements are brought into operation – provided that unwanted interference is not caused to analogue assignments of a neighbour High potential for future digital development High potential for future digital development If required, the rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained If required, the rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained Use of synthesis planning approach could facilitate a near ideal Plan Use of synthesis planning approach could facilitate a near ideal Plan Transition process would require coordination with neighbouring countries Transition process would require coordination with neighbouring countries Necessary for the Agreement to contain procedures to allow for a transition to the all-digital Plan Necessary for the Agreement to contain procedures to allow for a transition to the all-digital Plan

10 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Planning Scenario 4 New Plan – no need to retain or protect existing or planned analogue assignments Greatest potential for future digital development Greatest potential for future digital development May have an application in situations where there are currently unused channels May have an application in situations where there are currently unused channels Administration will have little or no freedom to decide for itself when any given station could be brought into operation as considerable interaction with neighbouring administrations could be required Administration will have little or no freedom to decide for itself when any given station could be brought into operation as considerable interaction with neighbouring administrations could be required Necessary to develop complex transition procedures Necessary to develop complex transition procedures No rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained No rights for ST61 and GE89 plans are retained

11 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Planning Elements First layer What type of service is required: DVB-T, T-DAB? What type of service is required: DVB-T, T-DAB? What type of reception is required : fixed, portable? What type of reception is required : fixed, portable? Territorial coverage: complete, urban areas, regions? Territorial coverage: complete, urban areas, regions? Which existing and planned elements should be protected? Which existing and planned elements should be protected? Second layer Which DVB-T variant should be employed? Which DVB-T variant should be employed? Which network characteristics should be chosen: antennas, distance between stations? Which network characteristics should be chosen: antennas, distance between stations? Third layer Which network configuration should be employed: MFN/SFN? Which network configuration should be employed: MFN/SFN? Should entries in the Plan be allotments or assignments, or both? Should entries in the Plan be allotments or assignments, or both?

12 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Planning approaches: Assignments In the past, terrestrial television planning in Europe has been by way of assignment conferences In the past, terrestrial television planning in Europe has been by way of assignment conferences The assignment plan provides a frequency for each station – at the completion of the planning process the locations and characteristics of the transmitters are known The assignment plan provides a frequency for each station – at the completion of the planning process the locations and characteristics of the transmitters are known Assignment planning, based on a lattice structure, is appropriate where transmitter sites can be assumed to have the same characteristics Assignment planning, based on a lattice structure, is appropriate where transmitter sites can be assumed to have the same characteristics The transmitters can be brought into service without further coordination The transmitters can be brought into service without further coordination A lower limit for the radiated power is normally defined for stations within the planning process A lower limit for the radiated power is normally defined for stations within the planning process Examples of assignments used in lattice planning (ST61)

13 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Planning approaches: Allotments In general nothing is known of the actual location of the transmitter sites, or of the specific transmission characteristics to be used In general nothing is known of the actual location of the transmitter sites, or of the specific transmission characteristics to be used The parameters required are a definition of the area to be covered, the channel and the interference potential of the allotment The parameters required are a definition of the area to be covered, the channel and the interference potential of the allotment In order to carry out planning it is necessary to define reference transmission conditions to calculate potential interference and facilitate compatibility calculations In order to carry out planning it is necessary to define reference transmission conditions to calculate potential interference and facilitate compatibility calculations The allotment plan provides frequencies to be used in particular areas without specifying the stations to which the frequencies are assigned The allotment plan provides frequencies to be used in particular areas without specifying the stations to which the frequencies are assigned Band III allotments areas from the Wiesbaden 1995 Plan

14 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Allotment planning: reference networks Reference networks are required to assess the outgoing interference potential with particular reference to: calculating the compatibility between allotment areas – including separation distance calculating the compatibility between allotment areas – including separation distance the generation of a set of calculation test points for the later conversion of allotments into assignments the generation of a set of calculation test points for the later conversion of allotments into assignments Separation distances between reference networks

15 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Assignment and/or allotment planning Assignment planning is preferable Where transmitter infrastructure is known Where transmitter infrastructure is known In the case of MFN or small SFN planning In the case of MFN or small SFN planning Allotment planning is preferable Where the transmitter infrastructure is not known Where the transmitter infrastructure is not known If channels are available for planning DVB-T services which are required to cover the whole of a larger area If channels are available for planning DVB-T services which are required to cover the whole of a larger area If great potential for flexibility in terms of the implementation of transmitter networks within the Plan is desired If great potential for flexibility in terms of the implementation of transmitter networks within the Plan is desired If portable reception is a prime requirement If portable reception is a prime requirement General conclusion Whilst allotment based planning requires more work after the conference, there is a major advantage in terms of flexibility in the subsequent development of transmitter networks and greater scope to accommodate future digital system developments Whilst allotment based planning requires more work after the conference, there is a major advantage in terms of flexibility in the subsequent development of transmitter networks and greater scope to accommodate future digital system developments

16 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Planning method PLANNING METHOD Full or partial coverage Assignments Lattice based Lattice Independent Allotments Lattice based Lattice Independent Lattice based: a systematic and geographically regular distribution of frequency resources over an area Lattice independent: a pseudo-random but spectrum utilization efficient distribution of frequency resources over an area

17 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Lattice-based methods Lattice based methods assume: Geometrically regular lattices, linear channel-distribution schemes Geometrically regular lattices, linear channel-distribution schemes All transmitters are identical, their powers and antenna heights being the same All transmitters are identical, their powers and antenna heights being the same Antenna radiation patterns are omni-directional in the horizontal plane Antenna radiation patterns are omni-directional in the horizontal plane Radio wave propagation losses are not a function of propagation direction and frequency Radio wave propagation losses are not a function of propagation direction and frequency Lattice based methods have been applied with success for past planning/re-planning of AM or FM sound or televisions services where: Empirical methods were difficult to implement Empirical methods were difficult to implement When some uniformity of standards exists for the services to be planned When some uniformity of standards exists for the services to be planned There is freedom in assigning any frequency to any transmitter There is freedom in assigning any frequency to any transmitter

18 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Lattice-independent methods Lattice-independent planning makes no assumption about the uniformity of the network and this can be a significant advantage where: Coverage requirements depart from any approximation to a regular lattice – useful for a mixture of large and small areas requiring different programmes, and in areas where several countries meet and each has adopted a different coverage philosophy Coverage requirements depart from any approximation to a regular lattice – useful for a mixture of large and small areas requiring different programmes, and in areas where several countries meet and each has adopted a different coverage philosophy A set of assignments needs to be added into an existing planned broadcasting situation, or there are analogue stations in the same part of the spectrum A set of assignments needs to be added into an existing planned broadcasting situation, or there are analogue stations in the same part of the spectrum Furthermore lattice-independent planning: can permit a more-or-less continuous process of transition from analogue only can permit a more-or-less continuous process of transition from analogue only represents a close approach to optimum use of the spectrum when coverage areas are non-uniform represents a close approach to optimum use of the spectrum when coverage areas are non-uniform

19 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Choice of planning method or methods Lattice based methods have successfully provided the basis for most of the past broadcasting plans and could be adopted for use for digital broadcasting planning in areas of relative uniformity of requirement characteristics Lattice based methods have successfully provided the basis for most of the past broadcasting plans and could be adopted for use for digital broadcasting planning in areas of relative uniformity of requirement characteristics Lattice-independent planning seems highly likely to provide an optimum means to achieve both the desired coverage and the most efficient use of the available spectrum in areas of non­ uniform requirements for digital television and/or sound broadcasting (very different sizes of coverage area and various reception conditions), and in areas where there are already networks of analogue stations Lattice-independent planning seems highly likely to provide an optimum means to achieve both the desired coverage and the most efficient use of the available spectrum in areas of non­ uniform requirements for digital television and/or sound broadcasting (very different sizes of coverage area and various reception conditions), and in areas where there are already networks of analogue stations

20 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Example of a lattice-independent planning process compatibility analysis and synthesis 1.Submission of the input requirements for the digital broadcasting services 2.Identify the analogue broadcasting services and other services to be protected 3.Perform compatibility analysis 4.Assess the results from step 3 5.Allow for administrative input concerning compatibility between requirements 6.Perform synthesis to produce a plan 7.Review the results and loop back to step 3 if the desired result is not achieved 8.Agreement of the final plan Submission of requirements Identify analogue and OS to be protected Perform compatibility analysis Perform Plan synthesis Results assessment Review results Agreed Plan Administrative input on compatibility Administrative input on compatibility

21 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Network structures and configurations In principle there are two types of terrestrial digital broadcasting networks to be considered: In principle there are two types of terrestrial digital broadcasting networks to be considered: multi-frequency networks (MFN) which allow the same or different programmes to be carried by individual transmitters using different frequencies multi-frequency networks (MFN) which allow the same or different programmes to be carried by individual transmitters using different frequencies single frequency networks (SFN) in which distributed emission is implemented whereby coverage is provided by multiple transmitters operating on the same frequency and carrying the same programmes single frequency networks (SFN) in which distributed emission is implemented whereby coverage is provided by multiple transmitters operating on the same frequency and carrying the same programmes The network configurations for digital terrestrial broadcasting services can be implemented as MFN, as SFN or as mixed networks consisting of MFNs and SFNs The network configurations for digital terrestrial broadcasting services can be implemented as MFN, as SFN or as mixed networks consisting of MFNs and SFNs The type of network implemented depends on the availability of frequencies, the type of coverage required, the number of multiplexes to be provided and may depend on national constraints or strategies The type of network implemented depends on the availability of frequencies, the type of coverage required, the number of multiplexes to be provided and may depend on national constraints or strategies

22 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Coverage of service area C1 C5 C1 C3 C7 C9 C11 C1 C9 C5 C3 Border of service area C3 Border of coverage area for an individual transmitter Each transmitter uses a different frequency channel (Cx), acting independently and having its own coverage area Re-use of channels is possible given sufficient geographical separation Multi Frequency Networks (MFNs)

23 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Coverage of service area Border of service area C1 Border of coverage area All transmitters of the network use the same frequency channel The transmitters provide a common coverage area and cant be operated independently – they must carry identical multiplex content Single Frequency Network (SFN)

24 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Considerations concerning MFN and SFN configurations MFN A large part of the existing analogue network infrastructure may be re-used particularly for fixed reception – this has cost-saving implications for the broadcaster and can also provide benefits for the viewer A large part of the existing analogue network infrastructure may be re-used particularly for fixed reception – this has cost-saving implications for the broadcaster and can also provide benefits for the viewerSFN The same frequency must be available over the whole coverage area The same frequency must be available over the whole coverage area Existing analogue network infrastructures can be re-used although additional transmitters may be required to avoid self-interference Existing analogue network infrastructures can be re-used although additional transmitters may be required to avoid self-interference SFN planning allows for a more homogeneous field strength distribution for portable and mobile reception SFN planning allows for a more homogeneous field strength distribution for portable and mobile reception Mixed MFN-SFN Within an MFN of main stations, lower power stations may complete the coverage using the same frequency as the associated main station Within an MFN of main stations, lower power stations may complete the coverage using the same frequency as the associated main station An MFN structure for transmitting a national multiplex and an SFN structure for transmitting a regional multiplex An MFN structure for transmitting a national multiplex and an SFN structure for transmitting a regional multiplex This type of mixed network scenario could arise from different approaches in adjacent countries This type of mixed network scenario could arise from different approaches in adjacent countries

25 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September Other information available in Chapter 3 A method for establishing the coverage area of coordinated (existing or planned) analogue stations A method for establishing the coverage area of coordinated (existing or planned) analogue stations Details of the frequency bands used for television broadcasting within the planning area Details of the frequency bands used for television broadcasting within the planning area Information concerning relevant digital terrestrial systems for television (ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T) and sound (T-DAB and ISDB-T SB ) Information concerning relevant digital terrestrial systems for television (ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T) and sound (T-DAB and ISDB-T SB ) An overview of digital broadcast systems intended for or already in use in the Bands III, IV and V (Annex A.3.3) which indicates that: An overview of digital broadcast systems intended for or already in use in the Bands III, IV and V (Annex A.3.3) which indicates that: For Bands IV/V all countries with an entry intend to use DVT-T For Bands IV/V all countries with an entry intend to use DVT-T For Band III the vast majority of European countries intend to use T­DAB and DVB-T whilst for other parts of the planning area the current trend is towards DVB-T only For Band III the vast majority of European countries intend to use T­DAB and DVB-T whilst for other parts of the planning area the current trend is towards DVB-T only

26 Information Meeting on RRC-04/05, September The End Thank you for your attention


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