Presentation on theme: "DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION Compilation and interpretation of primary and secondary sources of information. The integration of different sources will."— Presentation transcript:
DATA COLLECTION DATA COLLECTION Compilation and interpretation of primary and secondary sources of information. The integration of different sources will consolidate the write up of the report.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION Primary Source Data is collected by researcher himself Data is gathered through questionnaire, interviews, observations etc. Secondary Source Data collected, compiled or written by other researchers eg. books, journals, newspapers Any reference must be acknowledged
STEPS TO COLLECT DATA DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION REVIEW & COMPILE SECONDARY SOURCE INFORMATION ( Referred to in the BACKGROUND/ INTRODUCTION section of report) REVIEW & COMPILE SECONDARY SOURCE INFORMATION ( Referred to in the BACKGROUND/ INTRODUCTION section of report) PLAN & DESIGN DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS TO GATHER PRIMARY INFORMATION (Referred to in the FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS sections of report) PLAN & DESIGN DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS TO GATHER PRIMARY INFORMATION (Referred to in the FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS sections of report) DATA COLLECTION
METHODS USED TO COLLECT PRIMARY SOURCE DATA 1.Interviews 2.Questionnaires 3.Survey 4.Experimentation 5.Case Study 6.Observation However, for a small-scale study, the most commonly used methods are interviews, survey questionnaires and observations.
Effective way of gathering information INTERVIEW Involves verbal and non-verbal communications Can be conducted face to face, by telephone, online or through mail
Steps To An Effective Interview Prepare your interview schedule Select your subjects/ key informants Conduct the interview Analyze and interpret data collected from the interview
The most common data collection instrument Survey Questionnaire Useful to collect quantitative and qualitative information Should contain 3 elements: 1.Introduction – to explain the objectives 2.Instructions – must be clear, simple language & short 3.User-friendly – avoid difficult or ambiguous questions
2 Basic Types of survey questions: 1. Open-ended Questions ◦ Free-response (Text Open End) ◦ Fill-in relevant information 2. Close-ended Questions ◦ Dichotomous question ◦ Multiple-choice ◦ Rank ◦ Scale ◦ Categorical ◦ Numerical Note: For specific examples and students’ activities on each question style, please refer to the notes on Data Collection in the e-learning.
Steps To An Effective Survey Questionnaire Prepare your survey questions (Formulate & choose types of questions, order them, write instructions, make copies) Select your respondents/sampling Random/Selected Administer the survey questionnaire (date, venue, time ) Analyze and interpret data collected Tabulate data collected (Statistical analysis-frequency/mean/correlation/% ) A sample of complete survey questionnaire http://www.custominsight.com/demo/form_widgets.rtf
Observe verbal & non-verbal communication, surrounding atmosphere, culture & situation Observations Need to keep meticulous records of the observations Can be done through discussions, observations of habits, rituals, review of documentation, experiments
Steps To An Effective Observation Determine what needs to be observed (Plan, prepare checklist, how to record data) Select your participants Random/Selected Conduct the observation (venue, duration, recording materials, take photographs ) Analyze and interpret data collected Compile data collected
1. Decide what kind of data collection instrument(s )that you want to use – refer to your proposal – any changes? 2. If you choose questionnaire – do you have the established/ ready set of questions? If not, you have to find one, or, come up with your own. (this will take some times and should be done with great detail). 3. If you choose to do interview, you need to decide on the details – how many participants, questions, where, how long, etc? 4. If you choose to do observation, detail out your process – how many, how large, where, how long, etc?
1. The reading Log It should consist of 2 forms: Reading Log & Index You may get the form from http://uhl2332ak.wikispaces.com/ASSESSMENT+2 http://uhl2332ak.wikispaces.com/ASSESSMENT+2 2. Survey questions – ready set (the ones that you found from other sources) or Proposed survey questions (the ones that you will come up with your own) 3. For those who choose to do interview, you should submit the details of your interview. (Proposed questions, how many, when, how long, etc) 4. For those who choose to do observation, you should submit the details of your observation. (Proposed venue, how many, when, how long, etc)
DATA ANALYSIS 3. In a small scale study, the most common forms of statistical analysis presented are: Frequency Mean Percentage 1. To analyse data from interviews and observation, use Summary sheet Checklist 2. To analyse data from questionnaires, use ManuallySPSS
DATA INTERPRETATION It involves 2 terms: 1.Results: - presentation of data/findings (statistics) 2. Discussion: - interpretation of data/findings
DATA INTERPRETATION Things to consider when interpreting your data: 1.Interpret findings based on the purpose and objectives of your study 2.Relate the findings to real life context 3.Use persuasive language to convince your readers to see the research from your point of view. 4.Organise your interpretation to highlight the most important findings 5.Include limitations to your research. 6.Use simple, clear language