3 Learning Objectives By the end of this lecture you should be: able to understand the different types of research methodologyable to aware of the the different data collection tools.able to understand sampling designable to learn how to structure a questionnaire
4 Research MethodologyMethods: present tense to describe a method that can replicatedhe research method is chosen based on:the objectives of the studythe costs involved in conducting the studythe availability of the data
5 Research MethodologyThere are four basic methods of conducting a research study:SurveysExperimentsSecondary data studiesObservation.Interviews.
6 SurveyA survey is a research technique, which is used to gather information from a sample of respondents by employing a questionnaire.Surveys are normally carried out to obtain primary data.Primary data are the data that are gathered first hand to answer the research question being investigated.
7 Survey Surveys are conducted by: Meeting the respondents in personContacting the respondents through the telephoneConducting surveys throughConducting online surveys through the InternetResearchers adopt any of these methods depending on their requirement.
8 ExperimentsIn business research, experiments can be conducted for studying cause-and-effect relationships.
9 Secondary DataA secondary data study is concerned with the analysis of already existing data that is related to the research topic in question.
10 ObservationObservation technique is a process where the respondents are observed without any interruption by the observers.Example:The shopping patterns of customers in supermarkets assessed by the researcher or by counting the number of vehicles can qualify as observation research.
11 InterviewAn interview is a purposeful discussion between two or more people (Kahn and Cannell 1957).Help to gather valid and reliable data that are relevant to research question(s) and objectives.
12 Sampling DesignIn sampling, we gather data on an entire “population” by measuring only a subset of that population, known as the sample.A population consists of all of the individual elements in a defined area.
13 Sampling DesignAre there too many people in the group that you are studying?Are you limited in time and resources?If you answered yes to one or both questions, you might want to select a sampling design to carry out your study.
14 Sampling DesignA simple random sample is a selection of individuals chosen so that each point in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
15 Sampling DesignA well-defined sample has the same characteristics as the population as a wholeIt is very important to:define the population before selecting the sampledecide the size of the sample.How big should a sample be?The bigger the sample size the greater will be its accuracy.Once a researcher decides on a sample, he needs to obtain data from this sample.
16 ExampleThe data were collected using an internet questionnaire survey. Six hundred Saudi engineering companies were selected from 2,002 companies obtained from the Chamber of commerce database.Determine the used research method, sample and population in the above statment?
17 Questionnaire structure Well designed questionnaires are highly structured so that the data can be analyzed quantitatively and systematically.Proper questionnaire design is essential to ensure that you obtain valid responses to the questions asked.In order to obtain accurate relevant information:give some thought to what questions we askhow we ask questions ,the order we ask questions, and the general layout of the questionnaire.
18 How do I organize a survey? Plan AheadSet aside time to prepare questionsIdentify GoalsClearly identify the information that you want to obtain from the surveyProvide InstructionExplain why you are conducting the survey and provide any additional instructions that they will need to complete the questionnaire.Length of Survey/Questionnaireshort (1-2 pages) and simple questionnaires usually attract higher response rates than long (4 + pages) and complex ones.
19 Types of Questions:Closed FormatRespondents are forced to choose between several given options.multiple choice, yes/no and rankingAdvantages of closed format:Easy and quick to fill inEasy to code, record, and analyze results quantitativelyEasy to report results
20 Types of Questions:Open Format: the respondents can formulate their own answers.use the open format if you are looking for respondents to provide specific comments or feedback.Advantages of open format:Allows exploration of the range of possible themes arising from an issue
21 How do I ask the questions? Use short and simple sentences.Ask for only one piece of information at a time.Example: Please rate the Global Environment Class in terms of its content and presentationShould be divided into two parts:question one: “Please rate the class in terms of its content”question two: “Please rate the class in terms of its presentation.Avoid negatives if possible.
22 How should I arrange the questions? Some general rules are:Go from general to specific.Go from easy to difficult.Start with closed format questions.Start with questions relevant to the main subject.Do not start with demographic and personal questionQuestionnaires must first be piloted and evaluated before the actual survey
23 How should I begin?It is good to have a personalized cover letter or an introductory statement that:explains the purpose of the survey, the importance of the respondent’s participation, the person who is responsible for the survey.A good way to start is:“Hello. My name is ___(your name)___ and I am student at _(your school or institution). I’m working on a research project looking at __(title of your research project)_ for a course called ‘ ( your course name).’ I was wondering if you have a few minutes to answer some questions dealing with my research.”At the end always thank the respondent for participating in your questionnaire.
24 Online resourcesOnline surveys can be developed for little or no cost through services such as Survey Monkey (This site and similar services may help you to set up your questions, administer your response, and analyze your responses.