Presentation on theme: "CSP in Spain Cayetano López CIEMAT Director General December 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1CSP in SpainCayetano LópezCIEMATDirector GeneralDecember 2011
2The elements of change in the energy paradigm The serious drawbacks of the existing energy supply schemeImply a change whose main vector is:Reduce the carbon content of the primary energy sourcesEnergy saving and efficiency increaseLess fossil fuelsMore renewablesMore (at least keep) nuclear (Fukushima accident?, Gen IV?)Possible clean use of coal (CO2 capture and sequestration)Fusion (not available in the short term)None of these alternatives are free of problems. To implement them, a big effort in technology development and political support is necessary.
4Renewables in the Spain energy supply 11,3% in Primary Energy13,2 % in Final Energy35 % in Electricity5 % biofuelsCO2 emissions by unit of electricity produced
5Solar energy is plentiful but diffuse The solar resourceIn good conditions, the daily averaged incoming solar flux is around 220 – 250 W / m2 which, integrated, gives a yearly primary energy of around 2000 – 2200 kWh / m2. This is equivalent to a “rain” of about 20 cm of oil per annum and m2. 1,2 barrel/(year x m2)Solar energy is plentiful but diffuse
6CSP prospects in Spain, 2009With Spain at the Epicenter, Global Concentrated Solar Power Industry to Reach 25 GW by 2020Cambridge, Massachusetts, 28 April Led by development in Spain and potential in the US, concentrated solar power markets are entering a new growth phase, amidst a tumultuous global economic landscape. The CSP industry is scaling rapidly with 1.2 GW under construction as of April 2009 and another 13.9 GW announced globally through 2014, according to a new study from Emerging Energy Research analyzing global CSP markets and strategies.Spain is the epicenter of CSP development with 22 projects for 1,037 MW under construction, all of which are projected to come online by the end of Despite only 75 MW of CSP under construction, the US continues to offer significant opportunity for CSP, with 8.5 GW in the pipeline and scheduled for installation by Attracted to promised lower costs, US utilities have turned to CSP -- through both Power Purchase Agreements and direct ownership -- to meet their Renewable Portfolio Standard mandates.
16Conditions for the RES deployment Politics Legislation, IncentivesSubsidies, etc.Industry Entrepreneurship,Venture capital, etc.R + D Technology Centers,Universities, etc.
17Solar Platform in Almeria (PSA) 1011931.- Central Receiver2.- Parabolic troughs3.- Direct Steam Generation4.- Stirling Dishes5.- Solar Furnace6.- Water Detoxification7.- Water Desalination8.- Energetic Efficiency in Buildings9.- Fresnel Collectors10.- Advanced Technologies: gas/molten salts18546728The Plataforma Solar de Almería is the world most complete experimental installation in concentration solar energy
18DSG: An important simplification SobrecalentadorGenerador de vapor.DesgasificadorRecalentadorDep. expansión aceiteCaldera auxiliarCampo decolectores SolaresTurbina de vaporCondensadorAceite a 295 ºCAceite a 390 ºCVapor a 104 bar/371 ºCCircuito de aceiteHTF Plant (present)Caldera auxiliarcolectores SolaresCampo deDesgasificadorCondensadorTurbina de vaporDSG Plant (future)Vapor a 104 bar/400 ºCAgua a 114 bar / 120 ºC
19A technological breakthrough: Direct Steam Generation Máx. temperature and pressure: 400 ºC and 120 bar.11 troughs. Opening: m; total length: 550 m; Power: 1.8 MWtEnvironment friendlyCost reduction (20 %)3 Mwe prototype in order to check this technology (CIEMAT, Iberdrola, IDAE, AGECAM, Navarro-Piquer)Hopefully completed in
20Molten Salt Receiver installed at CESA-1 Central ReceiverPressurized Air Receiver (SOLGATE) installed at CESA 1Molten Salt Receiver installed at CESA-1
21Environmental Applications - Detoxification plant for pesticide polluted waters in the Almeria greenhouse fields. In operation since June 2004 (ALBAIDA)- CONSOLIDER Project: TRAGUA (Solar Energy for water treatment)- AQUACAT: Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco- VII FP projects: SOLWATERGY (Integration of CSP and Desalination at the Mediterranean Area), Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Egypt, Algeria
26MENA-Europe Complementarity The Desertec and the Mediterranean Solar Projects
27Renewable Energies Problem 1: High Cost Problem 2: Intermitency Possible solutions:Increasing size of the plantsAdvances in R + DImprovements in component manufactureSeries production (market expansion)Experience in O & MProblem 2: IntermitencyHybridationEnergy storage (electricity, heat, H2)