Presentation on theme: "Basic Principles of Finnish Education"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Principles of Finnish Education Finnish education and science policy stresses quality, efficiency, equity and internationalismEqual opportunitiesComprehensive educationCompetent teachersStudent counselling and special needs educationEncouraging assessment and evaluationSignificance of education in societyA flexible system based on empowermentCo-operationA student-oriented, active conception of learningEveryone has the right to free basic education
2Basic Principles of Finnish Education no tuition fees in general and vocational upper secondary education, in polytechnics or in universitiesEducation is primarily co-financed by the government and local authoritieslocal authorities pay 54.7% of the cost of basic education, general upper secondary education, vocational education and training and polytechnic education.Universities, continuing vocational and professional education and liberal adult education are state-funded
3Basic Principles of Finnish Education • Mandatory for all children between 7 and 16 yrs old (since 1921) • Equality of access • Free of charge (from pre-school to university) • School-based curriculum • National curriculum framework • Municipal & school curricula developed locally • Prepares for lifelong learning • Teacher autonomy in instruction • Voluntary preschool education offered to all 6 year old children (95% attend)
4Administration in education Educational legislation is passed and the general principles governing education are determined by ParliamentGovernment and the Ministry of Education and Culture, formulate and implement education policy.The National Board of Education, which is subordinate to the Ministry, has many tasks relating to the provision of education and its developmentLocal authorities have a duty to provide basic education for children living in the municipality
5Basic education in a nutshell ✓ a nine-year comprehensive curriculum for the whole age group✓ teaching is provided by schools near the home✓ no degree; a final certificate will be given for completing the syllabus✓ teaching, text books and teaching materials, school transport and school meals are free✓ basic education includes a one-year long voluntary pre-primary education in a school or day-care centre✓ local authorities can also provide voluntary morning and afternoon activities for pupils in basic education✓ provides the necessary prerequisites for all upper secondary education
6Schools at Present• About 3300 schools of which 215 have grades 1 to 9 • General comprehensive school has 14 subjects in grades 1 to 6 and a few more in grades 7 to 9 • Religion is a mandatory subject • Newest subject is health education (2004-) • First foreign language at the 3rd grade (English and German most popular) • Handicraft has been a school subject since 1860s
7Secondary Education• Upper secondary school (high school) • 2-4 year program leading to Matriculation Examination Individual curriculum for all students – nongraded program, everyone studies according to his/her own study plan • mandatory courses (47-52) • advanced courses (min 10) • same subject courses (max 15) • applied courses (max 20)
8Secondary EducationFinnish upper secondary schools are typically small, having students, only 8 schools over 1000 students• 417 upper secondary schools in the country, total is about students• About 58% of the student go to upper secondary school• Entrance restricted (grade marks based admission criteria)• Free for students, except books and materials
9Vocational Education • Government has guaranteed access to further vocational or general education for all comprehensiveschool graduates• Around 40% of students choose vocational education• Programs are generally 3 yrs long (120 ECTS credit points)
10Vocational Education Education free of charge, including lunch and transportation from home; books and materials not free20 credits general studies, 80 credits vocational and 20 practical at the work placeOver 200 different vocational programs offeredAround 7000 students combine their vocational and upper secondary school studies and make both vocational degree and ME in a four year program
11Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training in a Nutshell Admission requirement is the completion of basic education syllabus;Education providers primarily select their students based on earlier academic achievement but may also hold entrance exams or aptitude tests and may take the applicant’s work experience into consideration;Application takes place through a joint application system electronically;The studies primarily aim at obtaining the vocational skills needed in working life;Additionally, three-year studies give general eligibility to apply for studies at universities and polytechnics ;Opportunities for individual progress in studies have been enhanced;A vocational upper secondary qualification can be obtained through attending a vocational school, through apprenticeship training, or through a competence test;20 credits (around 6 months) of the studies are conducted on-the-job;Skills demonstrations were launched in 2006 as proof of having reached the goals given to vocational studies.
12Higher Education• Finland has a dual higher education system • 16 universities ( ) • 26 polytechnics ( ) • It is possible to apply to higher education after a Matriculation exam or vocational degree
13Higher Education Total of 307300 students in higher education Ministry of Education policy: 50% of 30-34yr age have higher education degree by 2015The Universities Act requires that universities promote free research, offer scientific and artistic education based on research and educate students to serve their country and humanity. In carrying out thismission, universities must interact with society and strenghten the impact of research on society.
14Polytechnics: Universities of applied sciences Professional higher education degrees offered in the areas labour market requires highly educatedprofessionalsPolytechnics are municipal or private institutions,authorized and supported by the Ministry of EducationAre autonomous in their internal affairs
15Polytechnics: Universities of applied sciences Degrees offered:• Polytechnic Bachelor’s degree• Polytechnic Master’s degree• Further education and specialization studies• Open polytechnic education
16Universities11 multidisciplinary universities, 1 school of economics and business administration, 2 universities of technology and 2 artacademiesNew university legislation in 2010All universities are public, autonomous institutions governed by themselves and funded mostly by support from the state budgetMost popular programs are primary school teacher education, psychology, mass media, social sciencesOpen university system offers university level basic studies to everyone interested
17Universities Universities are autonomous and independent of state (also financially)Freedom of research and educationDegrees are based on Bologna treaty ( ECTS)(since 2008)Students are accepted to study Master’s degree but haveto take Bachelor before making the Master’s (MA, MSc)Entrance to universities very restricted: typically 15-20%of the applicants are accepted at the Univ of Tampere;30-40% to universities of technology
18Adult Education Both general and vocational adult education aimed to promote the idea of lifelong learningGeneral adult education institutes supported by thestate and municipalities (e.g. community colleges)Courses do not lead to degreesVocational adult education institutes offer same degrees as institutes for young studentsCurricula fitted for adult purposesShorter programs – previous skills tested in workingcontext exams
19Adult educationAdult education policy is designed to provide a wide range of study opportunities for the adult populationGeneral and interest-oriented:- General upper secondary schools for adults;- Folk high schools;- Adult education centres, study centres, and educational organisations;- Physical education centres;- Institutions providing basic art education, like music institutions;- Summer universities.
20Adult education Vocational: Institutions providing vocational education and training;Vocational adult education centres;Specialised vocational institutions;Continuing education centres of universities;Polytechnics;Home economics counselling organisations;Organisations for crafts and design.