Presentation on theme: "What is the link between citizenship and other integration policies in EU? Thomas Huddleston (MPG) Co-financed by the European Fund for the Integration."— Presentation transcript:
What is the link between citizenship and other integration policies in EU? Thomas Huddleston (MPG) Co-financed by the European Fund for the Integration of Third- Country Nationals
Question How are naturalisation policies related to various other integration policies in Europe? – Long-term residence, Political participation, Anti- discrimination, Family Reunion, Targeted Policies Two alternative views: I. Naturalisation policy at the heart of a countrys integration policy II. Naturalisation policy as one of various integration policy alternatives
Datasets: MIPEX (access to nationality & 6 other integration policy areas) CITLAW/CITIMP (ordinary naturalisation, ius soli, spousal/filial transfer) Eurostat (naturalisation rates & long-term residence share) Methodology: Explore bivariate correlations between naturalisation policy and various integration policies – Focus on MIPEX Access to Nationality as indicator for naturalisation policy but results comparable with CITLAW/CITIMP average Explore dimensionality of integration policy with Categorical Principal Component Analysis Methodology
A countrys naturalisation policy is a strong predicator of its overall integration policies Summary of Findings Inclusive integration and naturalisation policy in eg PT and SE Restrictive integration and naturalisation policy in eg LT, LV, AT, BG. Strong underlyingintegration policy dimension (α =.921) suggests coherence between various policies.
Long-term residence a substitute for (facilitating) naturalisation in new countries of immigration (+ AT, DK, NO) Long-term residence Positive link between both in most of Western Europe Similar conditions for long- term residence & citizenship Link between security of LTR & naturalisation policy/rate Higher shares of LTRs among TCNs linked to inclusive LTR policy & restrictive naturalisation policy Access to nationality (MIPEX) Long-term residence (MIPEX)
Political participation Countries with more inclusive citizenship policies tend to grant more political rights to foreigners AND higher naturalisation rates Strong on all dimensions EXCEPT electoral rights Due to outliers that have more open political rights & more obstacles to naturalise (NO, FI, & to certain extent, IE, DK, CH, ES) Access to nationality (MIPEX) Political participation (MIPEX)
Countries with stronger anti-discrimination laws are more likely to have more inclusive citizenship laws Summary of Findings Access to nationality (MIPEX) Anti-discrimination law (MIPEX) Linked to discrimination grounds (e.g. nationality) & strength of enforcement Major outliers are BG, HU, RO, LT, SI, SK, CY: Strong anti- discrimination laws due to Roma/ethnic minorities, BUT restrictive naturalisation laws
More proactive targeted policies in countries with inclusive naturalisation & ius soli laws Summary of Findings More targeted education policies for migrant pupils (esp. intercultural education!) Greater access to training & targeted job-hunting support More support to immigrant NGOs & info campaigns Outliers: More support in AT & EE, Less support in IE & UK Access to nationality (MIPEX) Targeted education policies (MIPEX)
Conclusions Strong coherence between various integration policies, with citizenship policy as core predictor of a countrys overall approach to integration. Long-term residence as substitute for citizenship? Yes, in new countries of migration but not in rest of Europe where we find a positive relation. No contradiction between political rights & naturalisation: actually, the opposite! No link between family reunion policies/conditions & naturalisation policies/rates Related to strong laws for equal treatment & against nationality discrimination Link with targeted support to improve immigrants education, labour market position, and political participation
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